MapWith-0.2.0.0: mapWith: like fmap, but with additional parameters (isFirst, isLast, etc).

MapWith

Description

Provides fmap-like functionality, but can also "inject" additional parameters to the mapping function, such as:

• whether the first / last item
• the previous / next item
• the index from the start / end

It offers excellent performance.

Synopsis

# Type Names

These names are used for types and variables throughout:

t
the Traversable we're mapping over
a
a value in the input Traversable
b
a result in the output Traversable
i
an output from an Injector, injected into a map function. (i may represent one than one injected value).
s
the internal state in an Injector

# Pre-Packaged Maps

Some pre-defined maps with commonly used injectors.

withFirst :: Traversable t => (a -> Bool -> b) -> t a -> t b Source #

Maps over a Traversable, with an additional parameter indicating whether an item is the first.

>>> let g x f = [if f then '*' else ' ', x] in withFirst g "fred"
["*f", " r", " e", " d"]


withLast :: Traversable t => (a -> Bool -> b) -> t a -> t b Source #

Maps over a Traversable, with an additional parameter indicating whether an item is the last.

>>> let g x l = [x, if l then '*' else ' '] in withLast g "fred"
["f ","r ","e ","d*"]


withFirstLast :: Traversable t => (a -> Bool -> Bool -> b) -> t a -> t b Source #

Maps over a Traversable, with additional parameters indicating whether an item is the first or last (or both).

>>> let g x f l = [star f, x, star l]; star b = if b then '*' else ' ' in withFirstLast g "fred"
["*f ", " r ", " e ", " d*"]


andFirstLast :: Traversable t => t a -> t (a, Bool, Bool) Source #

andFirstLast = withFirstLast (,,)

withPrevNext :: Traversable t => (a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a -> b) -> t a -> t b Source #

Maps over a Traversable, with additional parameters indicating the previous and next elements.

The second (or third) parameter to the map function is Nothing when called for the first (or last) item, otherwise it's Just the previous (or next) item.

>>> let f x prvMay nxtMay = maybe "*" (cmp x) prvMay ++ x ++ maybe "*" (cmp x) nxtMay; cmp x y = show $compare x y in withPrevNext f ["foo", "bar", "baz"] ["*fooGT","LTbarLT","GTbaz*"]  andPrevNext :: Traversable t => t a -> t (a, Maybe a, Maybe a) Source # andPrevNext = withPrevNext (,,) # Custom Maps In general, a map function will take one parameter from the Traversable, then one (or more) from each of any number of Injectors. For example: >>> mapFn w x y z = (w, x, y, z) >>> injectedFn = mapFn <-^ isLim ^-> eltIx <-^ eltFrom [8,2,7,1] >>> mapWith injectedFn "abc" [('a',False,0,7),('b',False,1,2),('c',True,2,8)]  Where: • mapFn: a function that maps over a Traversable, but requires additional parameters • injectedFn: represents the combination of mapFn with three injectors that provide the required parameters: • <-^ isLim: injects True if this is the limit, from the right (i.e. the last item). • ^-> eltIx: inject the index, from the left • <-^ eltFrom [8,2,7,1]: inject elements from this list, from the right. mapWith then maps the mapFn over the Traversable, with the following parameters: Call w x y z 1 'a' False 0 7 2 'b' False 1 2 3 'c' True 2 8 mapWith :: Traversable t => InjectedFn a b -> t a -> t b Source # maps an InjectedFn over a Traversable type t, turning a t a into a t b and preserving the structure of t. Parameters (as defined in the InjectedFn) are passed to a map function (embedded in the InjectedFn), in addition to the elements of the Traversable. mapWithM :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => InjectedFn a (m b) -> t a -> m (t b) Source # like mapM, but with an InjectedFn. mapWithM_ :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => InjectedFn a (m b) -> t a -> m () Source # like mapM_ (which is like mapM but ignores the results), but with an InjectedFn. foldMapWith :: (Traversable t, Monoid b) => InjectedFn a b -> t a -> b Source # like foldMap, but with an InjectedFn data InjectedFn a b Source # Represents a function from a, plus a number of injected values, to b. Used by mapWith (& related), which maps over a Traversable, injecting the additional values as it goes. Constructed by combining a map function with Injectors using the ^-> and <-^ operators. The sequence: (a -> i1 -> i2 -> ... -> in -> b) op1 inj1 op2 inj2 ... opn injn where: • each op is ^-> or <-^; and • each inj is an Injector produces an InjectedFn a b, with n injected values (or more if any of the injectors inject multiple values). Instances  Source # Instance detailsDefined in MapWith Methods(^->) :: CurryTF i b => InjectedFn a (FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b Source #(<-^) :: CurryTF i b => InjectedFn a (FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b Source # class Injectable m where Source # An Injectable is (recursively) either: • a function (a -> i1 [.. -> in] -> b); or • an InjectedFn a (i1 [.. -> in] -> b), created by Injectable op Injector When n is the number of parameters injected by an injector (most commonly 1). Methods (^->) :: CurryTF i b => m a (FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b infixl 1 Source # Inject "from the left" (<-^) :: CurryTF i b => m a (FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b infixl 1 Source # Inject "from the right" Instances  Source # Instance detailsDefined in MapWith Methods(^->) :: CurryTF i b => InjectedFn a (FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b Source #(<-^) :: CurryTF i b => InjectedFn a (FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b Source # Injectable ((->) :: Type -> Type -> Type) Source # Instance detailsDefined in MapWith Methods(^->) :: CurryTF i b => (a -> FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b Source #(<-^) :: CurryTF i b => (a -> FnType i b) -> Injector a i -> InjectedFn a b Source # # Predefined Injectors Use these (or custom Injectors) to create InjectedFns that can be used with mapWith inject True if the item is at the limit: • from the left: if it's the first item • from the right: if it's the last item else inject False. >>> let f a l = [a, if l then '*' else ' '] in mapWith (f ^-> isLim) "12345" ["1*","2 ","3 ","4 ","5 "] >>> let f a l = [a, if l then '*' else ' '] in mapWith (f <-^ isLim) "12345" ["1 ","2 ","3 ","4 ","5*"]  adjElt :: Injector a (App1 (Maybe a)) Source # inject Just the adjacent item: • from the left: the previous item, except for the first item • from the right: the next item, except for the last item. (The "previous from the right" is the "next".) inject Nothing if there is no adjacent item (i.e. for the first / last). >>> let f a b = [a,maybe '-' id b] in mapWith (f ^-> adjElt) "12345" ["1-","21","32","43","54"] >>> let f a b = [a,maybe '-' id b] in mapWith (f <-^ adjElt) "12345" ["12","23","34","45","5-"]  adj2Elts :: Injector a (App2 (Maybe a) (Maybe a)) Source # like adjElt, but injects the two adjacent items into separate parameters. >>> let f a b c = [a,ch b,ch c]; ch = maybe '-' id in mapWith (f ^-> adj2Elts) "12345" ["1--","21-","321","432","543"] >>> let f a b c = [a,ch b,ch c]; ch = maybe '-' id in mapWith (f <-^ adj2Elts) "12345" ["123","234","345","45-","5--"]  eltIx :: Integral i => Injector a (App1 i) Source # inject the item index: • from the left: the first item is 0, the second 1, etc. • from the right: the last item is 0, the penultimate 1, etc. >>> let f a b = a : show b in mapWith (f ^-> eltIx) "freddy" ["f0","r1","e2","d3","d4","y5"] >>> let f a b = a : show b in mapWith (f <-^ eltIx) "freddy" ["f5","r4","e3","d2","d1","y0"]  True if an even-numbered (0th, 2nd, 4th, etc) item, counting from the left or from the right. >>> let f a e = [a, if e then '*' else ' '] in mapWith (f ^-> evenElt) "012345" ["0*","1 ","2*","3 ","4*","5 "] >>> let f a e = [a, if e then '*' else ' '] in mapWith (f <-^ evenElt) "543210" ["5 ","4*","3 ","2*","1 ","0*"]  foldlElts :: (i -> a -> i) -> i -> Injector a (App1 i) Source # Inject a (left-associative) fold of the items: Item Injected Value from the left from the right a0 z acc a0 ((z acc an) acc .. a1) acc a0 a1 (z acc a0) acc a1 (z acc an) acc .. a1 .. an ((z acc a0) acc a1) acc .. an z acc an >>> let f a b = a ++ show b in mapWith (f ^-> foldlElts (\l s -> l + length s) 0) ["every", "good", "boy"] ["every5","good9","boy12"] >>> let f a b = a ++ show b in mapWith (f <-^ foldlElts (\l s -> l + length s) 0) ["every", "good", "boy"] ["every12","good7","boy3"]  foldl1Elts :: (a -> a -> a) -> Injector a (App1 a) Source # A variant of foldlElts that has no starting value: Item Injected Value from the left from the right a0 a0 (an acc .. a1) acc a0 a1 a0 acc a1 an acc .. a1 .. an (a0 acc a1) acc .. an an >>> mapWith ((,) ^-> foldl1Elts (-)) [10,1,3] [(10,10),(1,9),(3,6)] >>> mapWith ((,) <-^ foldl1Elts (-)) [10,1,3] [(10,-8),(1,2),(3,3)]  Arguments  :: [i] The elements to inject. There must be enough elements. -> Injector a (App1 i) Inject each given element in turn: • from the left: the first element will be injected for the first item in the Traversable. • from the right: the first element will be injected for the last item in the Traversable. >>> let f a b = [a,b] in mapWith (f ^-> eltFrom "bill") "sue" ["sb","ui","el"] >>> let f a b = [a,b] in mapWith (f <-^ eltFrom "bill") "sue" ["sl","ui","eb"]  As a result of laziness, it is not always an error if there are not enough elements, for example: >>> drop 1$ mapWith ((\_ i -> i) <-^ eltFrom [8,2]) "abc"
[2,8]


eltFromMay :: [i] -> Injector a (App1 (Maybe i)) Source #

a safe version of eltFrom. Injects Just each given element in turn, or Nothing after they've been exhausted.

>>> let f a b = [a,ch b]; ch = maybe '-' id in mapWith (f ^-> eltFromMay "ben") "sally"
["sb","ae","ln","l-","y-"]
>>> let f a b = [a,ch b]; ch = maybe '-' id in mapWith (f <-^ eltFromMay "ben") "sally"
["s-","a-","ln","le","yb"]


eltFromDef :: i -> [i] -> Injector a (App1 i) Source #

a safe version of eltFrom. Injects each given element in turn, or the default after they've been exhausted.

>>> let f a b = [a,b] in mapWith (f ^-> eltFromDef 'X' "ben") "sally"
["sb","ae","ln","lX","yX"]
>>> let f a b = [a,b] in mapWith (f <-^ eltFromDef 'X' "ben") "sally"
["sX","aX","ln","le","yb"]


## Pre-Combined Injectors

These are combinations of ^-> or <-^ with pre-defined injectors.

They work well with the & operator, and can be combined with the ^-> and <-^ operators e.g.:

mapWith (f & isFirst <-^ eltFrom [9,2]) == mapWith (f ^-> isLim <-^ eltFrom [9,2])

You may find them more memorable or easier to type.

isFirst :: Injectable f => f a (Bool -> b) -> InjectedFn a b Source #

isLim, from the left.

isLast :: Injectable f => f a (Bool -> b) -> InjectedFn a b Source #

isLim, from the right.

prevElt :: Injectable f => f a (Maybe a -> b) -> InjectedFn a b Source #

adjElt, from the left.

nextElt :: Injectable f => f a (Maybe a -> b) -> InjectedFn a b Source #

adjElt, from the right.

# Custom Injectors

data Injector a i Source #

An Injector a i can be used with mapWith to map over a Traversable containing elements of type a, injecting values according to the type i as it goes.

Injectors have an initial state and a generate function.

For each item in the Traversable, the generate function can use both:

• the item from the Traversable, and
• the current state

to determine both:

• the new state, and
• the injection value(s)

The injection value(s) must be an args (per CurryTF), in order for the injector to work with the ^-> and <-^ operators. These can be created by:

• (recommended) using app1, app2, etc;
• by nesting the values appropriately e.g (i1, ()) or (i1, (i2, (i3, (i4, (i5, .. () ..))))); or
• defining a new instance of CurryTF

The first value(s) to inject is/are determined by a first call to the generate function. The first call to the generate function is with the first (if combined with ^->) or last (if combined with <-^) item from the Traversable and the initial state.

For example:

>>> funnyNext a s = (a + 1, app1 $a + s) >>> funnyInjector = Injector funnyNext 17 >>> mapWith ((\_ i -> i) ^-> funnyInjector) [4,8,3] [21,13,12]  Call Initial State Item New State Injection 1 17 4 4+1=5 17+4=21 2 5 8 8+1=9 5+8=13 3 9 3 3+1=4 (ignored) 9+3=12 >>> mapWith ((\_ i -> i) <-^ funnyInjector) [4,8,3] [13,12,20]  Call Initial State Item New State Injection 1 17 3 3+1=4 17+3=20 2 4 8 8+1=9 4+8=12 3 9 4 4+1=5 (ignored) 9+4=13 More usefully, this might allow for e.g. injection of random values, etc. Constructors  Injector (a -> s -> (s, i)) s the first parameter is a generate function, the second parameter is the initial/prior state. ## Stacked-Tuple Helpers These make it easier to define Injector types and injection values. For example: >>> myInj = Injector (\_ _ -> ((), app3 7 False 'z')) () :: Injector a (App3 Int Bool Char)  defines an Injector, that can map over a Traversable containing any type, and inject three additional constant parameters: 7::Int, False::Bool and 'z'::Char. Then: >>> mapWith ((,,,) ^-> myInj) ["foo", "bar", "baz"] [("foo",7,False,'z'),("bar",7,False,'z'),("baz",7,False,'z')]  You are advised to use these since I'm considering re-working CurryTF so that it's not based on tuples. If I do, I intend to maintain compatibility of app1/App1, etc. type App4 a b c d = (a, (b, (c, (d, ())))) Source # A "stacked tuple" of four values type App3 a b c = (a, (b, (c, ()))) Source # A "stacked tuple" of three values type App2 a b = (a, (b, ())) Source # A "stacked tuple" of two values type App1 a = (a, ()) Source # A "stacked tuple" of one value app1 :: a -> App1 a Source # stacks one value app2 :: a -> b -> App2 a b Source # stacks two values app3 :: a -> b -> c -> App3 a b c Source # stacks three values app4 :: a -> b -> c -> d -> App4 a b c d Source # stacks four values # Performance I think the performance is now (since 0.2.0.0) excellent. In particular: • mapWith "traverses" in each direction at most once, and only goes in both directions if it needs to; • many functions are inlinable and "compile away"; and • mapWith is capable of fusion (see details below). If you have any examples where you think performance is poor, or suggestions for improvements, please let me know. ## Benchmarks I've compared the performance of mapWith vs markbounds and a number of other attempts to "hand craft" equivalent functionality. The results are in Benchmarks.ods. The Benchmarks.hs file contains the details of these tests. ## Fusion mapWith & friends are capable of list fusion. When the Traversable is a List, mapWith is always a "good consumer". When the only injections are "from the left", it is also a "good producer". As a result, code like: >>> let f n b = if b then n*2 else n*3 in sum$ mapWith (f ^-> evenElt) [1..1000000]


will compile to a loop with no generation of list elements and no call stack usage.

When a "from the right" injection occurs, mapWith is not a "good producer", and an intermediate list will be created. However, with a "state free" Injector (such as isLim or adjElt), the list elements will only exist temporarily, the call stack will not grow (see here), and there is no limit to the number of elements in the processed list.

With other "from the right" Injectors, the call stack will grow as elements are processed, giving a limit to the size of the list. Despite this, I think the performance remains very good, and better than many alternative approaches.

In summary, when mapWith sits between a "good producer" and a "good consumer", there are three broad categories of behaviour:

Injections Speed Size limit
only "from the left" exceptional No
"from the right", but only "state free" very good No
any good Yes

Note that eltFrom (and similar) are not a "good consumers".