base-4.15.0.0: Basic libraries
Copyright (c) The University of Glasgow 1992-2003 see libraries/base/LICENSE cvs-ghc@haskell.org internal non-portable (GHC extensions) Unsafe Haskell2010

GHC.ForeignPtr

Description

GHC's implementation of the ForeignPtr data type.

Synopsis

# Types

data ForeignPtr a Source #

The type ForeignPtr represents references to objects that are maintained in a foreign language, i.e., that are not part of the data structures usually managed by the Haskell storage manager. The essential difference between ForeignPtrs and vanilla memory references of type Ptr a is that the former may be associated with finalizers. A finalizer is a routine that is invoked when the Haskell storage manager detects that - within the Haskell heap and stack - there are no more references left that are pointing to the ForeignPtr. Typically, the finalizer will, then, invoke routines in the foreign language that free the resources bound by the foreign object.

The ForeignPtr is parameterised in the same way as Ptr. The type argument of ForeignPtr should normally be an instance of class Storable.

Constructors

 ForeignPtr Addr# ForeignPtrContents

#### Instances

Instances details
 Eq (ForeignPtr a) # Since: base-2.1 Instance detailsDefined in GHC.ForeignPtr Methods(==) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool Source #(/=) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool Source # Data a => Data (ForeignPtr a) # Since: base-4.8.0.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.Data Methodsgfoldl :: (forall d b. Data d => c (d -> b) -> d -> c b) -> (forall g. g -> c g) -> ForeignPtr a -> c (ForeignPtr a) Source #gunfold :: (forall b r. Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r. r -> c r) -> Constr -> c (ForeignPtr a) Source #dataCast1 :: Typeable t => (forall d. Data d => c (t d)) -> Maybe (c (ForeignPtr a)) Source #dataCast2 :: Typeable t => (forall d e. (Data d, Data e) => c (t d e)) -> Maybe (c (ForeignPtr a)) Source #gmapT :: (forall b. Data b => b -> b) -> ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a Source #gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> ForeignPtr a -> r Source #gmapQr :: forall r r'. (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall d. Data d => d -> r') -> ForeignPtr a -> r Source #gmapQ :: (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> ForeignPtr a -> [u] Source #gmapQi :: Int -> (forall d. Data d => d -> u) -> ForeignPtr a -> u Source #gmapM :: Monad m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> ForeignPtr a -> m (ForeignPtr a) Source #gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> ForeignPtr a -> m (ForeignPtr a) Source #gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall d. Data d => d -> m d) -> ForeignPtr a -> m (ForeignPtr a) Source # # Since: base-2.1 Instance detailsDefined in GHC.ForeignPtr Methods(<) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool Source #(<=) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool Source #(>) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool Source #(>=) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool Source #max :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a Source #min :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a Source # # Since: base-2.1 Instance detailsDefined in GHC.ForeignPtr MethodsshowList :: [ForeignPtr a] -> ShowS Source #

Controls finalization of a ForeignPtr, that is, what should happen if the ForeignPtr becomes unreachable. Visually, these data constructors are appropriate in these scenarios:

                          Memory backing pointer is
GC-Managed   Unmanaged
Finalizer functions are: +------------+-----------------+
Allowed  | MallocPtr  | PlainForeignPtr |
+------------+-----------------+
Prohibited  | PlainPtr   | FinalPtr        |
+------------+-----------------+

Constructors

 PlainForeignPtr !(IORef Finalizers) The pointer refers to unmanaged memory that was allocated by a foreign function (typically using malloc). The finalizer frequently calls the C function free or some variant of it. FinalPtr The pointer refers to unmanaged memory that should not be freed when the ForeignPtr becomes unreachable. Functions that add finalizers to a ForeignPtr throw exceptions when the ForeignPtr is backed by PlainPtrMost commonly, this is used with Addr# literals. See Note [Why FinalPtr].Since: base-4.15 MallocPtr (MutableByteArray# RealWorld) !(IORef Finalizers) The pointer refers to a byte array. The MutableByteArray# field means that the MutableByteArray# is reachable (by GC) whenever the ForeignPtr is reachable. When the ForeignPtr becomes unreachable, the runtime's normal GC recovers the memory backing it. Here, the finalizer function intended to be used to free() any ancilliary *unmanaged* memory pointed to by the MutableByteArray#. See the zlib library for an example of this use.Invariant: The Addr# in the parent ForeignPtr is an interior pointer into this MutableByteArray#.Invariant: The MutableByteArray# is pinned, so the Addr# does not get invalidated by the GC moving the byte array.Invariant: A MutableByteArray# must not be associated with more than one set of finalizers. For example, this is sound:incrGood :: ForeignPtr Word8 -> ForeignPtr Word8 incrGood (ForeignPtr p (MallocPtr m f)) = ForeignPtr (plusPtr p 1) (MallocPtr m f)But this is unsound:incrBad :: ForeignPtr Word8 -> IO (ForeignPtr Word8) incrBad (ForeignPtr p (MallocPtr m _)) = do f <- newIORef NoFinalizers pure (ForeignPtr p (MallocPtr m f)) PlainPtr (MutableByteArray# RealWorld) The pointer refers to a byte array. Finalization is not supported. This optimizes MallocPtr by avoiding the allocation of a MutVar# when it is known that no one will add finalizers to the ForeignPtr. Functions that add finalizers to a ForeignPtr throw exceptions when the ForeignPtr is backed by PlainPtr. The invariants that apply to MallocPtr apply to PlainPtr as well.

Functions called when a ForeignPtr is finalized. Note that C finalizers and Haskell finalizers cannot be mixed.

Constructors

 NoFinalizers No finalizer. If there is no intent to add a finalizer at any point in the future, consider FinalPtr or PlainPtr instead since these perform fewer allocations. CFinalizers (Weak# ()) Finalizers are all C functions. HaskellFinalizers [IO ()] Finalizers are all Haskell functions.

type FinalizerPtr a = FunPtr (Ptr a -> IO ()) Source #

A finalizer is represented as a pointer to a foreign function that, at finalisation time, gets as an argument a plain pointer variant of the foreign pointer that the finalizer is associated with.

Note that the foreign function must use the ccall calling convention.

type FinalizerEnvPtr env a = FunPtr (Ptr env -> Ptr a -> IO ()) Source #

# Create

newForeignPtr_ :: Ptr a -> IO (ForeignPtr a) Source #

Turns a plain memory reference into a foreign pointer that may be associated with finalizers by using addForeignPtrFinalizer.

Allocate some memory and return a ForeignPtr to it. The memory will be released automatically when the ForeignPtr is discarded.

mallocForeignPtr is equivalent to

   do { p <- malloc; newForeignPtr finalizerFree p }

although it may be implemented differently internally: you may not assume that the memory returned by mallocForeignPtr has been allocated with malloc.

GHC notes: mallocForeignPtr has a heavily optimised implementation in GHC. It uses pinned memory in the garbage collected heap, so the ForeignPtr does not require a finalizer to free the memory. Use of mallocForeignPtr and associated functions is strongly recommended in preference to newForeignPtr with a finalizer.

Allocate some memory and return a ForeignPtr to it. The memory will be released automatically when the ForeignPtr is discarded.

GHC notes: mallocPlainForeignPtr has a heavily optimised implementation in GHC. It uses pinned memory in the garbage collected heap, as for mallocForeignPtr. Unlike mallocForeignPtr, a ForeignPtr created with mallocPlainForeignPtr carries no finalizers. It is not possible to add a finalizer to a ForeignPtr created with mallocPlainForeignPtr. This is useful for ForeignPtrs that will live only inside Haskell (such as those created for packed strings). Attempts to add a finalizer to a ForeignPtr created this way, or to finalize such a pointer, will throw an exception.

This function is similar to mallocForeignPtr, except that the size of the memory required is given explicitly as a number of bytes.

This function is similar to mallocForeignPtrBytes, except that the internally an optimised ForeignPtr representation with no finalizer is used. Attempts to add a finalizer will cause an exception to be thrown.

This function is similar to mallocForeignPtrBytes, except that the size and alignment of the memory required is given explicitly as numbers of bytes.

This function is similar to mallocForeignPtrAlignedBytes, except that the internally an optimised ForeignPtr representation with no finalizer is used. Attempts to add a finalizer will cause an exception to be thrown.

newConcForeignPtr :: Ptr a -> IO () -> IO (ForeignPtr a) Source #

Turns a plain memory reference into a foreign object by associating a finalizer - given by the monadic operation - with the reference. The storage manager will start the finalizer, in a separate thread, some time after the last reference to the ForeignPtr is dropped. There is no guarantee of promptness, and in fact there is no guarantee that the finalizer will eventually run at all.

Note that references from a finalizer do not necessarily prevent another object from being finalized. If A's finalizer refers to B (perhaps using touchForeignPtr, then the only guarantee is that B's finalizer will never be started before A's. If both A and B are unreachable, then both finalizers will start together. See touchForeignPtr for more on finalizer ordering.

# Add Finalizers

This function adds a finalizer to the given foreign object. The finalizer will run before all other finalizers for the same object which have already been registered.

addForeignPtrFinalizerEnv :: FinalizerEnvPtr env a -> Ptr env -> ForeignPtr a -> IO () Source #

Like addForeignPtrFinalizer but the finalizer is passed an additional environment parameter.

addForeignPtrConcFinalizer :: ForeignPtr a -> IO () -> IO () Source #

This function adds a finalizer to the given ForeignPtr. The finalizer will run before all other finalizers for the same object which have already been registered.

This is a variant of addForeignPtrFinalizer, where the finalizer is an arbitrary IO action. When it is invoked, the finalizer will run in a new thread.

NB. Be very careful with these finalizers. One common trap is that if a finalizer references another finalized value, it does not prevent that value from being finalized. In particular, Handles are finalized objects, so a finalizer should not refer to a Handle (including stdout, stdin, or stderr).

# Conversion

This function extracts the pointer component of a foreign pointer. This is a potentially dangerous operations, as if the argument to unsafeForeignPtrToPtr is the last usage occurrence of the given foreign pointer, then its finalizer(s) will be run, which potentially invalidates the plain pointer just obtained. Hence, touchForeignPtr must be used wherever it has to be guaranteed that the pointer lives on - i.e., has another usage occurrence.

To avoid subtle coding errors, hand written marshalling code should preferably use withForeignPtr rather than combinations of unsafeForeignPtrToPtr and touchForeignPtr. However, the latter routines are occasionally preferred in tool generated marshalling code.

This function casts a ForeignPtr parameterised by one type into another type.

Advances the given address by the given offset in bytes.

The new ForeignPtr shares the finalizer of the original, equivalent from a finalization standpoint to just creating another reference to the original. That is, the finalizer will not be called before the new ForeignPtr is unreachable, nor will it be called an additional time due to this call, and the finalizer will be called with the same address that it would have had this call not happened, *not* the new address.

Since: base-4.10.0.0

# Control over lifetype

withForeignPtr :: ForeignPtr a -> (Ptr a -> IO b) -> IO b Source #

This is a way to look at the pointer living inside a foreign object. This function takes a function which is applied to that pointer. The resulting IO action is then executed. The foreign object is kept alive at least during the whole action, even if it is not used directly inside. Note that it is not safe to return the pointer from the action and use it after the action completes. All uses of the pointer should be inside the withForeignPtr bracket. The reason for this unsafeness is the same as for unsafeForeignPtrToPtr below: the finalizer may run earlier than expected, because the compiler can only track usage of the ForeignPtr object, not a Ptr object made from it.

This function is normally used for marshalling data to or from the object pointed to by the ForeignPtr, using the operations from the Storable class.

unsafeWithForeignPtr :: ForeignPtr a -> (Ptr a -> IO b) -> IO b Source #

This is similar to withForeignPtr but comes with an important caveat: the user must guarantee that the continuation does not diverge (e.g. loop or throw an exception). In exchange for this loss of generality, this function offers the ability of GHC to optimise more aggressively.

Specifically, applications of the form:  unsafeWithForeignPtr fptr (forever something) 

See GHC issue #17760 for more information about the unsoundness behavior that this function can result in.

This function ensures that the foreign object in question is alive at the given place in the sequence of IO actions. However, this comes with a significant caveat: the contract above does not hold if GHC can demonstrate that the code preceeding touchForeignPtr diverges (e.g. by looping infinitely or throwing an exception). For this reason, you are strongly advised to use instead withForeignPtr where possible.

Also, note that this function should not be used to express dependencies between finalizers on ForeignPtrs. For example, if the finalizer for a ForeignPtr F1 calls touchForeignPtr on a second ForeignPtr F2, then the only guarantee is that the finalizer for F2 is never started before the finalizer for F1. They might be started together if for example both F1 and F2 are otherwise unreachable, and in that case the scheduler might end up running the finalizer for F2 first.

In general, it is not recommended to use finalizers on separate objects with ordering constraints between them. To express the ordering robustly requires explicit synchronisation using MVars between the finalizers, but even then the runtime sometimes runs multiple finalizers sequentially in a single thread (for performance reasons), so synchronisation between finalizers could result in artificial deadlock. Another alternative is to use explicit reference counting.

# Finalization

Causes the finalizers associated with a foreign pointer to be run immediately. The foreign pointer must not be used again after this function is called. If the foreign pointer does not support finalizers, this is a no-op.

# Commentary

This is a high-level overview of how ForeignPtr works. The implementation of ForeignPtr must accomplish several goals:

1. Invoke a finalizer once a foreign pointer becomes unreachable.
2. Support augmentation of finalizers, i.e. addForeignPtrFinalizer. As a motivating example, suppose that the payload of a foreign pointer is C struct bar that has an optionally NULL pointer field foo to an unmanaged heap object. Initially, foo is NULL, and later the program uses malloc, initializes the object, and assigns foo the address returned by malloc. When the foreign pointer becomes unreachable, it is now necessary to first free the object pointed to by foo and then invoke whatever finalizer was associated with bar. That is, finalizers must be invoked in the opposite order they are added.
3. Allow users to invoke a finalizer promptly if they know that the foreign pointer is unreachable, i.e. finalizeForeignPtr.

How can these goals be accomplished? Goal 1 suggests that weak references and finalizers (via Weak# and mkWeak#) are necessary. But how should they be used and what should their key be? Certainly not ForeignPtr or ForeignPtrContents. See the warning in GHC.Weak about weak pointers with lifted (non-primitive) keys. The two finalizer-supporting data constructors of ForeignPtr have an IORef Finalizers (backed by MutVar#) field. This gets used in two different ways depending on the kind of finalizer:

• HaskellFinalizers: The first addForeignPtrConcFinalizer_ call uses mkWeak# to attach the finalizer foreignPtrFinalizer to the MutVar#. The resulting Weak# is discarded (see addForeignPtrConcFinalizer_). Subsequent calls to addForeignPtrConcFinalizer_ (goal 2) just add finalizers onto the list in the HaskellFinalizers data constructor.
• CFinalizers: The first addForeignPtrFinalizer call uses mkWeakNoFinalizer# to create a Weak#. The Weak# is preserved in the CFinalizers data constructor. Both the first call and subsequent calls (goal 2) use addCFinalizerToWeak# to attach finalizers to the Weak# itself. Also, see Note [MallocPtr finalizers] for discussion of the key and value of this Weak#.

In either case, the runtime invokes the appropriate finalizers when the ForeignPtr becomes unreachable.