blaze-builder- Efficient buffered output.

Copyright(c) 2010 Simon Meier
LicenseBSD3-style (see LICENSE)
MaintainerSimon Meier <>
Portabilitytested on GHC only
Safe HaskellNone




Core types and functions for the Builder monoid and the Put monad.


Build Steps

data BufRange Source


BufRange !(Ptr Word8) !(Ptr Word8) 


data Builder Source


fromPut :: Put a -> Builder Source

Ignore the value of a put and only exploit its output side effect.

flush :: Builder Source

Output all data written in the current buffer and start a new chunk.

The use of this function depends on how the resulting bytestrings are consumed. flush is possibly not very useful in non-interactive scenarios. However, it is kept for compatibility with the builder provided by Data.Binary.Builder.

When using toLazyByteString to extract a lazy ByteString from a Builder, this means that a new chunk will be started in the resulting lazy ByteString. The remaining part of the buffer is spilled, if the reamining free space is smaller than the minimal desired buffer size.


putBuilder :: Builder -> Put () Source

Put the given builder.

putBuildStepCont :: (forall r. (a -> BufRange -> IO (BuildSignal r)) -> BufRange -> IO (BuildSignal r)) -> Put a Source

putLiftIO :: IO a -> Put a Source

Lift the given IO action.


writeToByteString :: Write -> ByteString Source

Run a Write to produce a strict ByteString. This is equivalent to (toByteString . fromWrite), but is more efficient because it uses just one appropriately-sized buffer.


toLazyByteString :: Builder -> ByteString Source

Extract the lazy ByteString from the builder by running it with default buffer sizes. Use this function, if you do not have any special considerations with respect to buffer sizes.

 toLazyByteString b = toLazyByteStringWith defaultBufferSize defaultMinimalBufferSize defaultFirstBufferSize b L.empty

Note that toLazyByteString is a Monoid homomorphism.

toLazyByteString mempty          == mempty
toLazyByteString (x `mappend` y) == toLazyByteString x `mappend` toLazyByteString y

However, in the second equation, the left-hand-side is generally faster to execute.

toLazyByteStringWith Source


:: Int

Buffer size (upper-bounds the resulting chunk size).

-> Int

Minimal free buffer space for continuing filling the same buffer after a flush or a direct bytestring insertion. This corresponds to the minimal desired chunk size.

-> Int

Size of the first buffer to be used and copied for larger resulting sequences

-> Builder

Builder to run.

-> ByteString

Lazy bytestring to output after the builder is finished.

-> ByteString

Resulting lazy bytestring

Run a Builder with the given buffer sizes.

Use this function for integrating the Builder type with other libraries that generate lazy bytestrings.

Note that the builders should guarantee that on average the desired chunk size is attained. Builders may decide to start a new buffer and not completely fill the existing buffer, if this is faster. However, they should not spill too much of the buffer, if they cannot compensate for it.

A call toLazyByteStringWith bufSize minBufSize firstBufSize will generate a lazy bytestring according to the following strategy. First, we allocate a buffer of size firstBufSize and start filling it. If it overflows, we allocate a buffer of size minBufSize and copy the first buffer to it in order to avoid generating a too small chunk. Finally, every next buffer will be of size bufSize. This, slow startup strategy is required to achieve good speed for short (<200 bytes) resulting bytestrings, as for them the allocation cost is of a large buffer cannot be compensated. Moreover, this strategy also allows us to avoid spilling too much memory for short resulting bytestrings.

Note that setting firstBufSize >= minBufSize implies that the first buffer is no longer copied but allocated and filled directly. Hence, setting firstBufSize = bufSize means that all chunks will use an underlying buffer of size bufSize. This is recommended, if you know that you always output more than minBufSize bytes.

toByteString :: Builder -> ByteString Source

Run the builder to construct a strict bytestring containing the sequence of bytes denoted by the builder. This is done by first serializing to a lazy bytestring and then packing its chunks to a appropriately sized strict bytestring.

toByteString = packChunks . toLazyByteString

Note that toByteString is a Monoid homomorphism.

toByteString mempty          == mempty
toByteString (x `mappend` y) == toByteString x `mappend` toByteString y

However, in the second equation, the left-hand-side is generally faster to execute.

toByteStringIO :: (ByteString -> IO ()) -> Builder -> IO () Source

Run the builder with a defaultBufferSized buffer and execute the given IO action whenever the buffer is full or gets flushed.

 toByteStringIO = toByteStringIOWith defaultBufferSize

This is a Monoid homomorphism in the following sense.

toByteStringIO io mempty          == return ()
toByteStringIO io (x `mappend` y) == toByteStringIO io x >> toByteStringIO io y

toByteStringIOWith Source


:: Int

Buffer size (upper bounds the number of bytes forced per call to the IO action).

-> (ByteString -> IO ())

IO action to execute per full buffer, which is referenced by a strict ByteString.

-> Builder

Builder to run.

-> IO ()

Resulting IO action.

toByteStringIOWith bufSize io b runs the builder b with a buffer of at least the size bufSize and executes the IO action io whenever the buffer is full.

Compared to toLazyByteStringWith this function requires less allocation, as the output buffer is only allocated once at the start of the serialization and whenever something bigger than the current buffer size has to be copied into the buffer, which should happen very seldomly for the default buffer size of 32kb. Hence, the pressure on the garbage collector is reduced, which can be an advantage when building long sequences of bytes.

Deafult Sizes

defaultFirstBufferSize :: Int Source

The default length (64) for the first buffer to be allocated when converting a Builder to a lazy bytestring.

See toLazyByteStringWith for further explanation.

defaultMinimalBufferSize :: Int Source

The minimal length (~4kb) a buffer must have before filling it and outputting it as a chunk of the output stream.

This size determines when a buffer is spilled after a flush or a direct bytestring insertion. It is also the size of the first chunk generated by toLazyByteString.

defaultBufferSize :: Int Source

Default size (~32kb) for the buffer that becomes a chunk of the output stream once it is filled.

defaultMaximalCopySize :: Int Source

The maximal number of bytes for that copying is cheaper than direct insertion into the output stream. This takes into account the fragmentation that may occur in the output buffer due to the early flush implied by the direct bytestring insertion.

defaultMaximalCopySize = 2 * defaultMinimalBufferSize