core-program-0.5.1.0: Opinionated Haskell Interoperability

Core.Program.Exceptions

Description

Facilities for handling exceptions.

The Haskell language itself doesn't treat exceptions specially, but the Haskell runtime does. Any I/O action can result in exceptions being thrown and frequently do. Developers can define exceptions too, and use them to signal anomolies.

In order to catch an exception you need to know the type of that exception. The way this is typically done is with the ScopedTypeVariables extension turned on and then adding a type annotation around the e variable in the lambda passed to catch.

    catch
(do
performSong "This is my party and I'll cry if I want to"
)
(\(e :: FirstWorldProblem) -> do
critical "Someone is crying"
debug "e" (displayException e)
terminate 1
)


which would work on the assumption that somewhere you have defined:

data FirstWorldProblem
= PersonCrying
| MyToastIsBurnt
| SomeoneWrongOnInternet Rope
deriving Show

instance Exception FirstWorldProblem


and that the performSong function at some point does something like:

performSong :: Lyrics -> Program None ()
performSong lyrics = do
...
throw PersonCrying


Keep in mind that exceptions are really for signalling failure and aren't generally that recoverable. Their utility is that they unwind the call stack from the point that failure occurs and get you back to somewhere you can handle it, but in Haskell "handling it" really just means that you log the problem and either go on to processing the next request or then outright terminate the program.

Thus a good pattern for using exceptions effectively is to use small blocks of pure code which can fail in the type Either Rope a, then pattern matching on what you get back: if you get a Left back then you throw an exception, otherwise you return the value with pure and continue:

    result <- case calculateInterestingThing inputs of
Left problem -> throw (SomeoneWrongOnInternet problem)
Right value -> pure value
...


this works rather nicely especially when you're doing lots of parsing; small things that can fail but it's all pure code. In conjunction with the Either monad you can quickly work through getting the values you need knowing it will fail fast if something goes wrong and you can get an appropriate error message back to the surface (in our case the Program τ monad) and you can throw from there.

Synopsis

# Documentation

catch :: Exception ε => Program τ α -> (ε -> Program τ α) -> Program τ α Source #

Catch an exception.

Some care must be taken. Remember that even though it is constrained by the Exception typeclass, ε does not stand for "any" exception type; is has a concrete type when it gets to being used in your code. Things are fairly straight-forward if you know exactly the exception you are looking for:

    catch
action
(\(e :: FirstWorldProblem) -> do
...
)


but more awkward when you don't.

If you just need to catch all exceptions, the pattern for that is as follows:

    catch
action
(\(e :: SomeException) -> do
...
)


The SomeException type is the root type of all exceptions; or rather, all types that have an instance of Exception can be converted into this root type. Thus you can catch all synchronous exceptions but you can't tell which type of exception it was originally; you rely on the Show instance (which is the default that displayException falls back to) to display a message which will hopefully be of enough utility to figure out what the problem is. In fairness it usually is. (This all seems a bit of a deficiency in the underlying exception machinery but it's what we have)

This catch function will not catch asynchonous exceptions. If you need to do that, see the more comprehensive exception handling facilities offered by safe-exceptions, which in turn builds on exceptions and base). Note that Program implements MonadCatch so you can use the full power available there if required.

Since: 0.5.0

try :: Exception ε => Program τ α -> Program τ (Either ε α) Source #

Catch an exception. Instead of handling an exception in a supplied function, however, return from executing the sub-program with the outcome in an Either, with the exception being on the Left side if one is thrown. If the sub-program completes normally its result is in the Right side.

(this is a wrapper around calling safe-exceptions's try function, which in turn wraps exceptions's try, which...)

Since: 0.5.0

throw :: Exception ε => ε -> Program τ α Source #

Throw an exception.

This will be thrown as a normal synchronous exception that can be caught with catch or try above.

Don't try and use this from pure code! A common temptation is to be in the middle of a computation, hit a problem, and think "oh, that's bad. I guess I'll throw an exception!". You can't. Surface the problem back to the I/O level code that Program τ monad provides, and then you can throw an exception if appropriate.

When you do throw an exception, we recommend you go to some trouble to make sure that the string or otherwise descriptive message is unique in your codebase. If you do so then when the problem arises you will be able to quickly search for that string and find the place where the exception arose from, even without the benefit of stack traces. For example,

    throw (SomeoneWrongOnInternet "Ashley thinks there are more than three Star Wars movies")


which will get you a nice crash message as your world falls down around you:

22:54:39Z (00.002) SomeoneWrongOnInternet "Ashley thinks there are more than three Star Wars movies"
\$


but if you're in a hurry and don't want to define a local exception type to use,

    throw Boom


will work.

(experienced users will note that Program implements MonadThrow and as such this is just a wrapper around calling safe-exceptions's throw function)

Since: 0.5.0

bracket :: Program τ ρ -> (ρ -> Program τ γ) -> (ρ -> Program τ α) -> Program τ α Source #

Acquire a resource, use it, then release it back.

The bracket pattern is common in Haskell for getting a resource ρ needed for a computation, preforming that computation, then returning the resource back to the system. Common examples are when making database connections and doing file or network operations, where you need to make sure you "close" the connection afterward before continuing the program so that scare resources like file handles are released.

Typically you have an open and close action that return and take a resource respectively, so you can use those directly, and use a lambda in the third action to actally get at the resource and do something with it when you need it:

    bracket
(openConnection)
(closeConnection)
(c -> do
this
thatAndNow
theOtherThingThatNeeds c
)


Note that bracket does not catch the exception if one is thrown! The finalizer will run, but then the exception will continue to propogate its way out of your program's call stack. Note also that the result of the cleanup action γ is ignored (it can be () or anythign else; it will be discarded).

Since: 0.5.0

finally :: Program τ α -> Program τ γ -> Program τ α Source #

Run an action and then, run a finalizer afterwards. The second action will run whether or not an exception was raised by the first one. This is like bracket above, but can be used when you know you have cleanup steps to take after your computation which do have to be run even if (especially if!) an exception is thrown but that that cleanup doesn't depend on the result of that computation or the resources used to do it. The return value γ of the subsequent action is ignored.

Since: 0.5.0

onException :: Program τ α -> Program τ γ -> Program τ α Source #

Run an action and then, if an exception was raised (and only if an exception was raised), run the second action. The return value γ of the subsequent action is is ignored.

Since: 0.5.0

data Boom Source #

A utility exception for those occasions when you just need to go "boom".

    case containsKey "James Bond" agents of
False -> do
evilPlan
True ->  do
write "No Mr Bond, I expect you to die!"
throw Boom


Since: 0.3.2

Constructors

 Boom

#### Instances

Instances details
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Core.Program.Exceptions MethodsshowsPrec :: Int -> Boom -> ShowS #show :: Boom -> String #showList :: [Boom] -> ShowS # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Core.Program.Exceptions Methods