di-core-1.0.4: Typeful hierarchical structured logging without monad towers.

Di.Core

Synopsis

Documentation

data Di level path msg Source #

Di level path msg allows you to to log messages of type msg, with a particular importance level, under a scope identified by path.

Each msg gets logged together with its level, path and the UTC timestamp stating the instant when the logging request was made.

Even though logging is usually associated with rendering text, Di makes no assumption about the types of the msg values being logged, nor the path values that convey their scope, nor the level values that convey their importance. Instead, it delays conversion from these precise types into the ultimately desired raw representation (if any) as much as possible. This makes it possible to log more precise information (for example, logging a datatype of your own without having to convert it to text first), richer scope paths (for example, the scope could be a Map that gets enriched with more information as we push down the path), and importance levels that are never too broad nor too narrow. This improves type safety, as well as the composability of the level, path and msg values. In particular, all of level, path and msg are contravariant values, which in practice means including a precise Di into a more general Di is always possible (see the contralevel, contrapath and contramsg functions).

Undesired messages can be filtered by using filter.

Contrary to other logging approaches based on monad transformers, a Di is a value that is expected to be passed around explicitly.

A Di can be safely used concurrently, and messages are rendered in the absolute order they were submitted for logging.

Di is pronounced as "dee" (not "die" nor "dye" nor "day"). "Di" is the spanish word for an imperative form of the verb "decir", which in english means "to say", which clearly must have something to do with logging.

Arguments

 :: (MonadIO m, MonadMask m) => (Log level path msg -> IO ()) Function that commits Logs to the outside world.For example, if you want to commit your Logs by displaying them in stderr, then this is the function that should do the rendering and writing to stderr.Notice that this function necessarily runs IO and not m because it will be performed in a different thread.Synchronous exceptions thrown by this function will be silently ignored. If you want to implement some retry or fallback mechanism, then you need to do it within this function. Asynchronous exceptions will be propagated to the thread that called new (see ExceptionInLoggingWorker). -> (Di level path msg -> m a) Within this scope, you can use the obtained Di safely, even concurrently. As soon as m a finishes, new will block until all Logs have finished processing, before returning. This is true even in case of exceptions from m a.WARNING: Even while new commit pure :: m (Di level path msg) type-checks, attempting to use the obtained Di outside its intended scope will fail. -> m a

Obtain a Di that will use the given function to commit Logs to the outside world.

Generally, you will want to call new just once per application, right from your main function. That is:

main :: IO ()
main = do
commit <- getSomeLogCommittingFunctionSomehow
new commit \$ \di -> do
-- The rest of your program goes here.
-- You can start logging right away.


Using the obtained Di concurrently is safe.

Note that by default, exceptions thrown through this Di using throw won't be logged. Please use onException to change this behavior. Morevoer, the default filter on this Di accepts all incoming logs.

Arguments

 :: MonadIO m => Di level path msg Where to log to. -> level Log importance level. -> msg Log message. -> m ()

Log a message msg with a particular importance level.

Notice that function requires a MonadIO constraint. If you want to log from other monads that don't satisfy this constraint but are somehow able to perform or build STM actions, then use log' instead.

log = log' (liftIO . atomically)


Refer to log' for more documentation.

Arguments

 :: Monad m => (forall x. STM x -> m x) Natural transformation from STM to m.Note that it is not necessary for this natural transofmation to be a monad morphism as well. That is, using atomically here is acceptable. -> Di level path msg Where to log to. -> level Log importance level. -> msg Log message. -> m ()

Log a message msg with a particular importance level.

This function is like log, but it doesn't require a MonadIO constraint. Instead, it asks for a natural transformation that will be used in order to run STM actions in m.

First, this allows you to log from any Monad that wraps IO without necessarily having a MonadIO instance. For example:

newtype Foo = Foo (IO a)
deriving (Functor, Applicative, Monad)

log' (Foo . atomically)
:: Di level path msg -> level -> msg -> Foo ()


Second, this log' function allows m to be STM itself:

log' id
:: Di level path msg -> level -> msg -> STM ()


The semantics of logging from within STM are those of any other STM transaction: That is, a log message is commited only once to the outside world if and when the STM transaction succeeds. That is, the following example will only ever commit the log containing ly and my, and not the one containing lx and mx.

atomically
(log' id di lx mx >> retry) <|>
(log' id di ly my)


Furthermore, much like we were able to log from a Foo that wrapped IO in the previous example, we are also able to log from any monad wrapping STM:

newtype Bar = Bar (STM a)
deriving (Functor, Applicative, Monad)

log' Bar
:: Di level path msg -> level -> msg -> Bar ()


This function returns immediately after queing the message for asynchronously committing the message in a different thread. If you want to explicitly wait for the message to be committed, then call flush afterwards.

Log messages are rendered in FIFO order, and their timestamp records the time when this log' function was called, rather than the time when the log message is committed in the future.

Note regarding exceptions: Any exception thrown by the given natural transformation will be thrown here. Synchronous exceptions that happen due to failures in the actual committing of the log message, which itself is performed in a different thread, are ignored (they should be handled in the function passed to new instead). If an asynchronous exception kills the logging thread, then you will synchronously get ExceptionInLoggingWorker here, but by the time that happens, that same exception will have already already been thrown asynchronously to this same thread anyway, so unless you did something funny to recover from that exception, you will have died already.

flush :: MonadIO m => Di level path msg -> m () Source #

Block until all messages being logged have finished processing.

If the MonadIO constraint can't be satisfied, then use flush' instead.

Manually calling flush is not usually necessary because new does it already, if at some point you want to ensure that all messages logged until then have properly commited, then flush will block until that happens.

Please see log to understand how exceptions behave in this function (hint: they behave unsurprisingly).

Arguments

 :: (forall x. STM x -> m x) Natural transformation from STM to m.Note that it is not necessary for this natural transofmation to be a monad morphism as well. That is, using atomically here is acceptable. -> Di level path msg -> m ()

This is like flush, but it doesn't require a MonadIO constraint.

More generally, flush' is to flush as log' is to log. So, refer to log' for more documentation on how to use this flush'.

Arguments

 :: (MonadIO m, Exception e) => Di level path msg -> e Exception. -> m a

Throw an Exception, but not without logging it first according to the rendering rules established by onException, and further restricted by the filtering rules established by filter.

This function is like throw', but requires a MonadIO constraint.

throw  ==  throw' (liftIO . atomically)


If the exception is not logged, then this function behaves as throwIO.

throw (onException (const False) di)  ==  liftIO . throwIO


Arguments

 :: (Monad m, Exception e) => (forall x. STM x -> m x) Natural transformation from STM to m.Note that it is not necessary for this natural transofmation to be a monad morphism as well. That is, using atomically here is acceptable.WARNING: Note that while this function can be id, calling throw' from STM **will not log** the exception, just throw it. This might change in the future if we figure out how to make it work safely. -> Di level path msg -> e Exception. -> m a

This is like throw, but it doesn't require a MonadIO constraint.

push :: path -> Di level path msg -> Di level path msg Source #

Push a new path to the Di.

Arguments

 :: (level -> Seq path -> msg -> Bool) Whether a particular log entry with the given level, paths and msg should be logged.The given paths indicate where the log call was made from, with an empty Seq representing log calls made at the current depth level (see push). The leftmost path in the Seq is the most immediate child, while the rightmost is the most distand child (i.e., the path closest to the place where log call actually took place). -> Di level path msg -> Di level path msg

Returns a new Di on which only messages with level, paths and msg satisfying the given predicate—in addition to any previous filters—are ever logged.

Identity:

filter (\_ _ _ -> True)  ==  id


Composition:

filter (\l ps m -> f l ps m && g l ps m)  ==  filter f . filter g


Notice how filter can't accept a message already rejected by a previous use of filter, yet it can reject a previously accepted one.

Commutativity:

filter f . filter g  ==  filter g . filter f


Arguments

 :: (SomeException -> Maybe (level, Seq path, msg)) -> Di level path msg -> Di level path msg

Modifies a Di so that exceptions thrown with throw could be logged as a msg with a particular level if both the passed in function returns Just, and filter so allows it afterwards.

If the given function returns Nothing, then no logging is performed.

The returned Seq path will extend the path at the throw site before sending the log. The leftmost path is closest to the root.

Composition:

onException f . onException g   ==   onException (g e *> f e)


Notice that the level, paths and msg resulting from g are discarded, yet its policy regarding whether to log or not is preserved in the same way as filter. That is, onException can't accept an exception already rejected by a previous use of onException, but it can reject a previously accepted one.

contralevel :: (level -> level') -> Di level' path msg -> Di level path msg Source #

A Di is contravariant in its level argument.

This function is used to go from a more general to a more specific type of level. For example, data Level = Info | Error is a more specific type than data Level' = Info' | Warning' | Error', since the former can only convey two logging levels, whereas the latter can convey three. We can convert from the more general to the more specific level type using this contralevel function:

contralevel (\case { Info -> Info'; Error -> Error' })
(di :: Di Level' String msg)
:: Di Level String msg


Identity:

contralevel id   ==   id


Composition:

contralevel (f . g)   ==   contralevel g . contralevel f


contrapath :: (path -> path') -> Di level path' msg -> Di level path msg Source #

A Di is contravariant in its path argument.

This function is used to go from a more general to a more specific type of path. For example, Int is a more specific type than String, since the former clearly conveys the idea of a number, whereas the latter could be anything that is representable as String, such as names of fruits and poems. We can convert from the more general to the more specific path type using this contrapath function:

contrapath show (di :: Di level String msg)
:: Di Int msg


Identity:

contrapath id   ==   id


Composition:

contrapath (f . g)   ==   contrapath g . contrapath f


contramsg :: (msg -> msg') -> Di level path msg' -> Di level path msg Source #

A Di is contravariant in its msg argument.

This function is used to go from a more general to a more specific type of msg. For example, Int is a more specific type than String, since the former clearly conveys the idea of a numbers, whereas the latter could be a anything that is representable as String, such as names of painters and colors. We can convert from the more general to the more specific msg type using this contramsg function:

contramsg show (di :: Di level path String)
:: Di level path Int


Identity:

contramsg id   ==   id


Composition:

contramsg (f . g)   ==   contramsg g . contramsg f


data Log level path msg Source #

Constructors

 Log Fieldslog_time :: SystemTimeFirst known timestamp when the log was generated.We use SystemTime rather than UTCTime because it is cheaper to obtain and to render. You can use systemToUTCTime to convert it if necessary.log_level :: levelImportance level of the logged message (e.g., “info”, “warning”, “error”, etc.).log_path :: Seq pathPath where the logged message was created from.The leftmost path is the root path. The rightmost path is the path closest to where the log was generated.log_message :: msgHuman-readable message itself.
Instances
 (Eq level, Eq path, Eq msg) => Eq (Log level path msg) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Di.Core Methods(==) :: Log level path msg -> Log level path msg -> Bool #(/=) :: Log level path msg -> Log level path msg -> Bool # (Show level, Show path, Show msg) => Show (Log level path msg) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Di.Core MethodsshowsPrec :: Int -> Log level path msg -> ShowS #show :: Log level path msg -> String #showList :: [Log level path msg] -> ShowS #

In new f g, if new's internal worker thread unexpectedly dies with an exception, either synchronous or asynchronous, then that exception will be wrapped in ExceptionInLoggingWorker and thrown to g's thread. Since this exception will be delivered to g asynchronously, it will be further wrapped in SomeAsyncException.

SomeAsyncException
(ExceptionInLoggingWorker (culprit :: SomeException))


If you receive this exception, it means that the thread responsible for running f died. This is very unlikely to happen unless an asynchronous exception killed the worker thread, in which case you should not try to recover from the situation.

Notice that synchronous exceptions from f itself are always muted. f's author is responsible for handling those if necessary.

Constructors

 ExceptionInLoggingWorker !SomeException
Instances
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Di.Core Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Di.Core

This exception is thrown if somebody tries to log or flush a message when the logging worker is not running.

Constructors

 LoggingWorkerNotRunning
Instances
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Di.Core Methods Source # Instance detailsDefined in Di.Core