diagrams-lib- Embedded domain-specific language for declarative graphics

Copyright(c) 2011 diagrams-lib team (see LICENSE)
LicenseBSD-style (see LICENSE)
Safe HaskellSafe-Inferred




Some miscellaneous utilities provided by the diagrams-lib package.


Utilities for users

with :: Default d => d Source

Several functions exported by the diagrams library take a number of arguments giving the user control to "tweak" various aspects of their behavior. Rather than give such functions a long list of arguments, and to make it possible for the user to selectively override only certain arguments and use default values for others, such sets of arguments are collected into a record with named fields (see PolygonOpts in Diagrams.TwoD.Shapes for an example). Such record types are made instances of the Default class, which provides a single record structure (def) collecting the "default" arguments to the function. with is a synonym for def, which provides nice-looking syntax for simulating optional, named arguments in Haskell. For example,

  polygon with {sides = 7, edgeSkip = 2}

calls the polygon function with a single argument (note that record update binds more tightly than function application!), namely, with (the record of default arguments) where the sides and edgeSkip fields have been updated.

applyAll :: [a -> a] -> a -> a Source

applyAll takes a list of functions and applies them all to a value, in sequence from the last function in the list to the first. For example, applyAll [f1, f2, f3] a == f1 . f2 . f3 $ a.

(#) :: a -> (a -> b) -> b infixl 8 Source

Postfix function application, for conveniently applying attributes. Unlike ($), (#) has a high precedence (8), so d # foo # bar can be combined with other things using operators like (|||) or (<>) without needing parentheses.

iterateN :: Int -> (a -> a) -> a -> [a] Source

iterateN n f x returns the list of the first n iterates of f starting at x, that is, the list [x, f x, f (f x), ...] of length n. (Note that the last element of the list will be f applied to x (n-1) times.)

tau :: Floating a => a Source

The circle constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its radius. Note that pi = tau/2.

For more information and a well-reasoned argument why we should all be using tau instead of pi, see The Tau Manifesto, http://tauday.com/.

To hear what it sounds like (and to easily memorize the first 30 digits or so), try http://youtu.be/3174T-3-59Q.

Internal utilities

foldB :: (a -> a -> a) -> a -> [a] -> a Source

Given an associative binary operation and a default value to use in the case of an empty list, perform a balanced fold over a list. For example,

  foldB (+) z [a,b,c,d,e,f] == ((a+b) + (c+d)) + (e+f)