hspec-2.6.0: A Testing Framework for Haskell

Safe HaskellNone
LanguageHaskell2010

Test.Hspec.Discover

Description

Warning: This module is used by hspec-discover. It is not part of the public API and may change at any time.

Synopsis

Documentation

type Spec = SpecWith () #

hspec :: Spec -> IO () #

Run given spec and write a report to stdout. Exit with exitFailure if at least one spec item fails.

class IsFormatter a where Source #

Instances
IsFormatter Formatter Source # 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Discover

IsFormatter (IO Formatter) Source # 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Discover

describe :: HasCallStack => String -> SpecWith a -> SpecWith a #

The describe function combines a list of specs into a larger spec.

(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] infixr 5 #

Append two lists, i.e.,

[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ..., yn] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ..., yn]
[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ...] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ...]

If the first list is not finite, the result is the first list.

seq :: a -> b -> b #

The value of seq a b is bottom if a is bottom, and otherwise equal to b. In other words, it evaluates the first argument a to weak head normal form (WHNF). seq is usually introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness.

A note on evaluation order: the expression seq a b does not guarantee that a will be evaluated before b. The only guarantee given by seq is that the both a and b will be evaluated before seq returns a value. In particular, this means that b may be evaluated before a. If you need to guarantee a specific order of evaluation, you must use the function pseq from the "parallel" package.

filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] #

filter, applied to a predicate and a list, returns the list of those elements that satisfy the predicate; i.e.,

filter p xs = [ x | x <- xs, p x]

zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] #

zip takes two lists and returns a list of corresponding pairs.

zip [1, 2] ['a', 'b'] = [(1, 'a'), (2, 'b')]

If one input list is short, excess elements of the longer list are discarded:

zip [1] ['a', 'b'] = [(1, 'a')]
zip [1, 2] ['a'] = [(1, 'a')]

zip is right-lazy:

zip [] _|_ = []
zip _|_ [] = _|_

print :: Show a => a -> IO () #

The print function outputs a value of any printable type to the standard output device. Printable types are those that are instances of class Show; print converts values to strings for output using the show operation and adds a newline.

For example, a program to print the first 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as:

main = print ([(n, 2^n) | n <- [0..19]])

fst :: (a, b) -> a #

Extract the first component of a pair.

snd :: (a, b) -> b #

Extract the second component of a pair.

otherwise :: Bool #

otherwise is defined as the value True. It helps to make guards more readable. eg.

 f x | x < 0     = ...
     | otherwise = ...

map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] #

map f xs is the list obtained by applying f to each element of xs, i.e.,

map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn]
map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...]

($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b infixr 0 #

Application operator. This operator is redundant, since ordinary application (f x) means the same as (f $ x). However, $ has low, right-associative binding precedence, so it sometimes allows parentheses to be omitted; for example:

f $ g $ h x  =  f (g (h x))

It is also useful in higher-order situations, such as map ($ 0) xs, or zipWith ($) fs xs.

Note that ($) is levity-polymorphic in its result type, so that foo $ True where foo :: Bool -> Int# is well-typed

fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b #

general coercion from integral types

realToFrac :: (Real a, Fractional b) => a -> b #

general coercion to fractional types

class Bounded a where #

The Bounded class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a type. Ord is not a superclass of Bounded since types that are not totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds.

The Bounded class may be derived for any enumeration type; minBound is the first constructor listed in the data declaration and maxBound is the last. Bounded may also be derived for single-constructor datatypes whose constituent types are in Bounded.

Methods

minBound :: a #

maxBound :: a #

Instances
Bounded Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Bounded Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Bounded Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: Int #

maxBound :: Int #

Bounded Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Bounded Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Bounded VecCount

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Bounded VecElem

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Bounded ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: () #

maxBound :: () #

(Bounded a, Bounded b) => Bounded (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b) #

maxBound :: (a, b) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c) => Bounded (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d) => Bounded (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i, Bounded j) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i, Bounded j, Bounded k) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i, Bounded j, Bounded k, Bounded l) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i, Bounded j, Bounded k, Bounded l, Bounded m) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i, Bounded j, Bounded k, Bounded l, Bounded m, Bounded n) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

(Bounded a, Bounded b, Bounded c, Bounded d, Bounded e, Bounded f, Bounded g, Bounded h, Bounded i, Bounded j, Bounded k, Bounded l, Bounded m, Bounded n, Bounded o) => Bounded (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

maxBound :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

class Enum a where #

Class Enum defines operations on sequentially ordered types.

The enumFrom... methods are used in Haskell's translation of arithmetic sequences.

Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no fields). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered left-to-right by fromEnum from 0 through n-1. See Chapter 10 of the Haskell Report for more details.

For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum, the following should hold:

   enumFrom     x   = enumFromTo     x maxBound
   enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound
     where
       bound | fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound
             | otherwise                = minBound

Minimal complete definition

toEnum, fromEnum

Methods

succ :: a -> a #

the successor of a value. For numeric types, succ adds 1.

pred :: a -> a #

the predecessor of a value. For numeric types, pred subtracts 1.

toEnum :: Int -> a #

Convert from an Int.

fromEnum :: a -> Int #

Convert to an Int. It is implementation-dependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to fit in an Int.

enumFrom :: a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n..] with [n..] = enumFrom n, a possible implementation being enumFrom n = n : enumFrom (succ n). For example:

  • enumFrom 4 :: [Integer] = [4,5,6,7,...]
  • enumFrom 6 :: [Int] = [6,7,8,9,...,maxBound :: Int]

enumFromThen :: a -> a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n,n'..] with [n,n'..] = enumFromThen n n', a possible implementation being enumFromThen n n' = n : n' : worker (f x) (f x n'), worker s v = v : worker s (s v), x = fromEnum n' - fromEnum n and f n y | n > 0 = f (n - 1) (succ y) | n < 0 = f (n + 1) (pred y) | otherwise = y For example:

  • enumFromThen 4 6 :: [Integer] = [4,6,8,10...]
  • enumFromThen 6 2 :: [Int] = [6,2,-2,-6,...,minBound :: Int]

enumFromTo :: a -> a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n..m] with [n..m] = enumFromTo n m, a possible implementation being enumFromTo n m | n <= m = n : enumFromTo (succ n) m | otherwise = []. For example:

  • enumFromTo 6 10 :: [Int] = [6,7,8,9,10]
  • enumFromTo 42 1 :: [Integer] = []

enumFromThenTo :: a -> a -> a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n,n'..m] with [n,n'..m] = enumFromThenTo n n' m, a possible implementation being enumFromThenTo n n' m = worker (f x) (c x) n m, x = fromEnum n' - fromEnum n, c x = bool (>=) ((x 0) f n y | n > 0 = f (n - 1) (succ y) | n < 0 = f (n + 1) (pred y) | otherwise = y and worker s c v m | c v m = v : worker s c (s v) m | otherwise = [] For example:

  • enumFromThenTo 4 2 -6 :: [Integer] = [4,2,0,-2,-4,-6]
  • enumFromThenTo 6 8 2 :: [Int] = []
Instances
Enum Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Bool -> Bool #

pred :: Bool -> Bool #

toEnum :: Int -> Bool #

fromEnum :: Bool -> Int #

enumFrom :: Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThen :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromTo :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThenTo :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

Enum Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Char -> Char #

pred :: Char -> Char #

toEnum :: Int -> Char #

fromEnum :: Char -> Int #

enumFrom :: Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThen :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromTo :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThenTo :: Char -> Char -> Char -> [Char] #

Enum Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Int -> Int #

pred :: Int -> Int #

toEnum :: Int -> Int #

fromEnum :: Int -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThen :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromTo :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int -> Int -> Int -> [Int] #

Enum Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Word -> Word #

pred :: Word -> Word #

toEnum :: Int -> Word #

fromEnum :: Word -> Int #

enumFrom :: Word -> [Word] #

enumFromThen :: Word -> Word -> [Word] #

enumFromTo :: Word -> Word -> [Word] #

enumFromThenTo :: Word -> Word -> Word -> [Word] #

Enum VecCount

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum VecElem

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: () -> () #

pred :: () -> () #

toEnum :: Int -> () #

fromEnum :: () -> Int #

enumFrom :: () -> [()] #

enumFromThen :: () -> () -> [()] #

enumFromTo :: () -> () -> [()] #

enumFromThenTo :: () -> () -> () -> [()] #

Integral a => Enum (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

succ :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

pred :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

toEnum :: Int -> Ratio a #

fromEnum :: Ratio a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

enumFromThen :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

enumFromTo :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

Enum a => Enum (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

succ :: Blind a -> Blind a #

pred :: Blind a -> Blind a #

toEnum :: Int -> Blind a #

fromEnum :: Blind a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Blind a -> [Blind a] #

enumFromThen :: Blind a -> Blind a -> [Blind a] #

enumFromTo :: Blind a -> Blind a -> [Blind a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a -> [Blind a] #

Enum a => Enum (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

succ :: Fixed a -> Fixed a #

pred :: Fixed a -> Fixed a #

toEnum :: Int -> Fixed a #

fromEnum :: Fixed a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Fixed a -> [Fixed a] #

enumFromThen :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> [Fixed a] #

enumFromTo :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> [Fixed a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a -> [Fixed a] #

Enum a => Enum (Positive a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Enum a => Enum (NonZero a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

succ :: NonZero a -> NonZero a #

pred :: NonZero a -> NonZero a #

toEnum :: Int -> NonZero a #

fromEnum :: NonZero a -> Int #

enumFrom :: NonZero a -> [NonZero a] #

enumFromThen :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> [NonZero a] #

enumFromTo :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> [NonZero a] #

enumFromThenTo :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> NonZero a -> [NonZero a] #

Enum a => Enum (NonNegative a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Enum a => Enum (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

succ :: Large a -> Large a #

pred :: Large a -> Large a #

toEnum :: Int -> Large a #

fromEnum :: Large a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Large a -> [Large a] #

enumFromThen :: Large a -> Large a -> [Large a] #

enumFromTo :: Large a -> Large a -> [Large a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a -> [Large a] #

Enum a => Enum (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

succ :: Small a -> Small a #

pred :: Small a -> Small a #

toEnum :: Int -> Small a #

fromEnum :: Small a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Small a -> [Small a] #

enumFromThen :: Small a -> Small a -> [Small a] #

enumFromTo :: Small a -> Small a -> [Small a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a -> [Small a] #

Enum a => Enum (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

succ :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

pred :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

toEnum :: Int -> Shrink2 a #

fromEnum :: Shrink2 a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Shrink2 a -> [Shrink2 a] #

enumFromThen :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> [Shrink2 a] #

enumFromTo :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> [Shrink2 a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> [Shrink2 a] #

class Eq a where #

The Eq class defines equality (==) and inequality (/=). All the basic datatypes exported by the Prelude are instances of Eq, and Eq may be derived for any datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Eq. However, == is customarily expected to implement an equivalence relationship where two values comparing equal are indistinguishable by "public" functions, with a "public" function being one not allowing to see implementation details. For example, for a type representing non-normalised natural numbers modulo 100, a "public" function doesn't make the difference between 1 and 201. It is expected to have the following properties:

Reflexivity
x == x = True
Symmetry
x == y = y == x
Transitivity
if x == y && y == z = True, then x == z = True
Substitutivity
if x == y = True and f is a "public" function whose return type is an instance of Eq, then f x == f y = True
Negation
x /= y = not (x == y)

Minimal complete definition: either == or /=.

Minimal complete definition

(==) | (/=)

Methods

(==) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(/=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

Instances
Eq Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(/=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Eq Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(/=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

Eq Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Eq instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 == (0/0 :: Double)
False

Also note that Double's Eq instance does not satisfy substitutivity:

>>> 0 == (-0 :: Double)
True
>>> recip 0 == recip (-0 :: Double)
False
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

(/=) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

Eq Float

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Float's Eq instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 == (0/0 :: Float)
False

Also note that Float's Eq instance does not satisfy substitutivity:

>>> 0 == (-0 :: Float)
True
>>> recip 0 == recip (-0 :: Float)
False
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(/=) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

Eq Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

Eq Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Methods

(==) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

(/=) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

Eq Ordering 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Eq Word 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

Eq () 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: () -> () -> Bool #

(/=) :: () -> () -> Bool #

Eq TyCon 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

(/=) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

Eq Module 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Module -> Module -> Bool #

(/=) :: Module -> Module -> Bool #

Eq TrName 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: TrName -> TrName -> Bool #

(/=) :: TrName -> TrName -> Bool #

Eq HUnitFailure 
Instance details

Defined in Test.HUnit.Lang

Eq FailureReason 
Instance details

Defined in Test.HUnit.Lang

Eq Result 
Instance details

Defined in Test.HUnit.Lang

Methods

(==) :: Result -> Result -> Bool #

(/=) :: Result -> Result -> Bool #

Eq Version

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Version

Methods

(==) :: Version -> Version -> Bool #

(/=) :: Version -> Version -> Bool #

Eq ASCIIString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Eq UnicodeString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Eq PrintableString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Eq Handle

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Methods

(==) :: Handle -> Handle -> Bool #

(/=) :: Handle -> Handle -> Bool #

Eq BigNat 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Methods

(==) :: BigNat -> BigNat -> Bool #

(/=) :: BigNat -> BigNat -> Bool #

Eq AsyncException

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Eq ArrayException

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Eq ExitCode 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Eq IOErrorType

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Eq BufferMode

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Eq Newline

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Methods

(==) :: Newline -> Newline -> Bool #

(/=) :: Newline -> Newline -> Bool #

Eq NewlineMode

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Eq MaskingState

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO

Eq IOException

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Eq ArithException

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exception.Type

Eq SrcLoc

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Stack.Types

Methods

(==) :: SrcLoc -> SrcLoc -> Bool #

(/=) :: SrcLoc -> SrcLoc -> Bool #

Eq Summary 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Runner

Methods

(==) :: Summary -> Summary -> Bool #

(/=) :: Summary -> Summary -> Bool #

Eq ColorMode 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Config.Options

Eq Location 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example.Location

Eq Seconds 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Clock

Methods

(==) :: Seconds -> Seconds -> Bool #

(/=) :: Seconds -> Seconds -> Bool #

Eq LocalTime 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Time.LocalTime.Internal.LocalTime

Eq Shrunk 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Function

Methods

(==) :: Shrunk -> Shrunk -> Bool #

(/=) :: Shrunk -> Shrunk -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq [a] 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

(/=) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

(==) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

(==) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (OrderedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Eq a => Eq (NonEmptyList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Eq a => Eq (SortedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: SortedList a -> SortedList a -> Bool #

(/=) :: SortedList a -> SortedList a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Positive a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (NonZero a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Bool #

(/=) :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (NonNegative a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Eq a => Eq (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: Large a -> Large a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Large a -> Large a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: Small a -> Small a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Small a -> Small a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(==) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(==) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(/=) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(==) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(/=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (a, b) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(Eq c, Eq a) => Eq (Tree c a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Tree

Methods

(==) :: Tree c a -> Tree c a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Tree c a -> Tree c a -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c) => Eq (a, b, c) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

(Eq e, Eq1 m, Eq a) => Eq (ErrorT e m a) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

(==) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Bool #

(/=) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d) => Eq (a, b, c, d) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m, Eq n) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m, Eq n, Eq o) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

class Fractional a => Floating a where #

Trigonometric and hyperbolic functions and related functions.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Floating. However, '(+)', '(*)' and exp are customarily expected to define an exponential field and have the following properties:

  • exp (a + b) = @exp a * exp b
  • exp (fromInteger 0) = fromInteger 1

Minimal complete definition

pi, exp, log, sin, cos, asin, acos, atan, sinh, cosh, asinh, acosh, atanh

Methods

pi :: a #

exp :: a -> a #

log :: a -> a #

sqrt :: a -> a #

(**) :: a -> a -> a infixr 8 #

logBase :: a -> a -> a #

sin :: a -> a #

cos :: a -> a #

tan :: a -> a #

asin :: a -> a #

acos :: a -> a #

atan :: a -> a #

sinh :: a -> a #

cosh :: a -> a #

tanh :: a -> a #

asinh :: a -> a #

acosh :: a -> a #

atanh :: a -> a #

class Num a => Fractional a where #

Fractional numbers, supporting real division.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Fractional. However, '(+)' and '(*)' are customarily expected to define a division ring and have the following properties:

recip gives the multiplicative inverse
x * recip x = recip x * x = fromInteger 1

Note that it isn't customarily expected that a type instance of Fractional implement a field. However, all instances in base do.

Minimal complete definition

fromRational, (recip | (/))

Methods

(/) :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

fractional division

recip :: a -> a #

reciprocal fraction

fromRational :: Rational -> a #

Conversion from a Rational (that is Ratio Integer). A floating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational, so such literals have type (Fractional a) => a.

Instances
Fractional Seconds 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Clock

Integral a => Fractional (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

(/) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

recip :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

fromRational :: Rational -> Ratio a #

class (Real a, Enum a) => Integral a where #

Integral numbers, supporting integer division.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Integral. However, Integral instances are customarily expected to define a Euclidean domain and have the following properties for the 'div'/'mod' and 'quot'/'rem' pairs, given suitable Euclidean functions f and g:

  • x = y * quot x y + rem x y with rem x y = fromInteger 0 or g (rem x y) < g y
  • x = y * div x y + mod x y with mod x y = fromInteger 0 or f (mod x y) < f y

An example of a suitable Euclidean function, for Integer's instance, is abs.

Minimal complete definition

quotRem, toInteger

Methods

quot :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

integer division truncated toward zero

rem :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

integer remainder, satisfying

(x `quot` y)*y + (x `rem` y) == x

div :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

integer division truncated toward negative infinity

mod :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

integer modulus, satisfying

(x `div` y)*y + (x `mod` y) == x

quotRem :: a -> a -> (a, a) #

simultaneous quot and rem

divMod :: a -> a -> (a, a) #

simultaneous div and mod

toInteger :: a -> Integer #

conversion to Integer

Instances
Integral Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

quot :: Int -> Int -> Int #

rem :: Int -> Int -> Int #

div :: Int -> Int -> Int #

mod :: Int -> Int -> Int #

quotRem :: Int -> Int -> (Int, Int) #

divMod :: Int -> Int -> (Int, Int) #

toInteger :: Int -> Integer #

Integral Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Integral Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Integral Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

quot :: Word -> Word -> Word #

rem :: Word -> Word -> Word #

div :: Word -> Word -> Word #

mod :: Word -> Word -> Word #

quotRem :: Word -> Word -> (Word, Word) #

divMod :: Word -> Word -> (Word, Word) #

toInteger :: Word -> Integer #

Integral a => Integral (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

quot :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

rem :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

div :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

mod :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

quotRem :: Blind a -> Blind a -> (Blind a, Blind a) #

divMod :: Blind a -> Blind a -> (Blind a, Blind a) #

toInteger :: Blind a -> Integer #

Integral a => Integral (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

quot :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

rem :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

div :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

mod :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

quotRem :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> (Fixed a, Fixed a) #

divMod :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> (Fixed a, Fixed a) #

toInteger :: Fixed a -> Integer #

Integral a => Integral (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

quot :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

rem :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

div :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

mod :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

quotRem :: Large a -> Large a -> (Large a, Large a) #

divMod :: Large a -> Large a -> (Large a, Large a) #

toInteger :: Large a -> Integer #

Integral a => Integral (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

quot :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

rem :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

div :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

mod :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

quotRem :: Small a -> Small a -> (Small a, Small a) #

divMod :: Small a -> Small a -> (Small a, Small a) #

toInteger :: Small a -> Integer #

Integral a => Integral (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

quot :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

rem :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

div :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

mod :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

quotRem :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> (Shrink2 a, Shrink2 a) #

divMod :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> (Shrink2 a, Shrink2 a) #

toInteger :: Shrink2 a -> Integer #

class Applicative m => Monad (m :: Type -> Type) where #

The Monad class defines the basic operations over a monad, a concept from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer, however, it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype of actions. Haskell's do expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions.

Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws:

Furthermore, the Monad and Applicative operations should relate as follows:

The above laws imply:

and that pure and (<*>) satisfy the applicative functor laws.

The instances of Monad for lists, Maybe and IO defined in the Prelude satisfy these laws.

Minimal complete definition

(>>=)

Methods

(>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b infixl 1 #

Sequentially compose two actions, passing any value produced by the first as an argument to the second.

(>>) :: m a -> m b -> m b infixl 1 #

Sequentially compose two actions, discarding any value produced by the first, like sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.

return :: a -> m a #

Inject a value into the monadic type.

fail :: String -> m a #

Fail with a message. This operation is not part of the mathematical definition of a monad, but is invoked on pattern-match failure in a do expression.

As part of the MonadFail proposal (MFP), this function is moved to its own class MonadFail (see Control.Monad.Fail for more details). The definition here will be removed in a future release.

Instances
Monad []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: [a] -> (a -> [b]) -> [b] #

(>>) :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] #

return :: a -> [a] #

fail :: String -> [a] #

Monad Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b #

(>>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

return :: a -> Maybe a #

fail :: String -> Maybe a #

Monad IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: IO a -> (a -> IO b) -> IO b #

(>>) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b #

return :: a -> IO a #

fail :: String -> IO a #

Monad Rose 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Property

Methods

(>>=) :: Rose a -> (a -> Rose b) -> Rose b #

(>>) :: Rose a -> Rose b -> Rose b #

return :: a -> Rose a #

fail :: String -> Rose a #

Monad Gen 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Gen

Methods

(>>=) :: Gen a -> (a -> Gen b) -> Gen b #

(>>) :: Gen a -> Gen b -> Gen b #

return :: a -> Gen a #

fail :: String -> Gen a #

Monad ReadP

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

(>>=) :: ReadP a -> (a -> ReadP b) -> ReadP b #

(>>) :: ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP b #

return :: a -> ReadP a #

fail :: String -> ReadP a #

Monad NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: NonEmpty a -> (a -> NonEmpty b) -> NonEmpty b #

(>>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty b #

return :: a -> NonEmpty a #

fail :: String -> NonEmpty a #

Monad P

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

(>>=) :: P a -> (a -> P b) -> P b #

(>>) :: P a -> P b -> P b #

return :: a -> P a #

fail :: String -> P a #

Monad (Either e)

Since: base-4.4.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(>>=) :: Either e a -> (a -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

(>>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

return :: a -> Either e a #

fail :: String -> Either e a #

Monoid a => Monad ((,) a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: (a, a0) -> (a0 -> (a, b)) -> (a, b) #

(>>) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

return :: a0 -> (a, a0) #

fail :: String -> (a, a0) #

Monad (SpecM a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Spec.Monad

Methods

(>>=) :: SpecM a a0 -> (a0 -> SpecM a b) -> SpecM a b #

(>>) :: SpecM a a0 -> SpecM a b -> SpecM a b #

return :: a0 -> SpecM a a0 #

fail :: String -> SpecM a a0 #

(Monad m, Error e) => Monad (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

(>>=) :: ErrorT e m a -> (a -> ErrorT e m b) -> ErrorT e m b #

(>>) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m b #

return :: a -> ErrorT e m a #

fail :: String -> ErrorT e m a #

Monad ((->) r :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: (r -> a) -> (a -> r -> b) -> r -> b #

(>>) :: (r -> a) -> (r -> b) -> r -> b #

return :: a -> r -> a #

fail :: String -> r -> a #

class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where #

The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws:

fmap id  ==  id
fmap (f . g)  ==  fmap f . fmap g

The instances of Functor for lists, Maybe and IO satisfy these laws.

Minimal complete definition

fmap

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b #

(<$) :: a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #

Replace all locations in the input with the same value. The default definition is fmap . const, but this may be overridden with a more efficient version.

Instances
Functor []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] #

(<$) :: a -> [b] -> [a] #

Functor Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Functor IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b #

(<$) :: a -> IO b -> IO a #

Functor Rose 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Property

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Rose a -> Rose b #

(<$) :: a -> Rose b -> Rose a #

Functor Blind 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Blind a -> Blind b #

(<$) :: a -> Blind b -> Blind a #

Functor Fixed 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Fixed a -> Fixed b #

(<$) :: a -> Fixed b -> Fixed a #

Functor OrderedList 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> OrderedList a -> OrderedList b #

(<$) :: a -> OrderedList b -> OrderedList a #

Functor NonEmptyList 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonEmptyList a -> NonEmptyList b #

(<$) :: a -> NonEmptyList b -> NonEmptyList a #

Functor SortedList 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> SortedList a -> SortedList b #

(<$) :: a -> SortedList b -> SortedList a #

Functor Positive 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Positive a -> Positive b #

(<$) :: a -> Positive b -> Positive a #

Functor NonZero 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonZero a -> NonZero b #

(<$) :: a -> NonZero b -> NonZero a #

Functor NonNegative 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonNegative a -> NonNegative b #

(<$) :: a -> NonNegative b -> NonNegative a #

Functor Large 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Large a -> Large b #

(<$) :: a -> Large b -> Large a #

Functor Small 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Small a -> Small b #

(<$) :: a -> Small b -> Small a #

Functor Shrink2 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 b #

(<$) :: a -> Shrink2 b -> Shrink2 a #

Functor Smart 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Smart a -> Smart b #

(<$) :: a -> Smart b -> Smart a #

Functor Gen 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Gen

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Gen a -> Gen b #

(<$) :: a -> Gen b -> Gen a #

Functor Handler

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Exception

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Handler a -> Handler b #

(<$) :: a -> Handler b -> Handler a #

Functor ReadP

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b #

(<$) :: a -> ReadP b -> ReadP a #

Functor NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b #

(<$) :: a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a #

Functor P

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> P a -> P b #

(<$) :: a -> P b -> P a #

Functor FormatF 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Formatters.Monad

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> FormatF a -> FormatF b #

(<$) :: a -> FormatF b -> FormatF a #

Functor (Either a)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Either a b -> Either a a0 #

Functor ((,) a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) #

Functor ((:->) a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Function

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> (a :-> a0) -> a :-> b #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a :-> b) -> a :-> a0 #

Functor (Fun a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Function

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Fun a a0 -> Fun a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Fun a b -> Fun a a0 #

Functor (Shrinking s) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Shrinking s a -> Shrinking s b #

(<$) :: a -> Shrinking s b -> Shrinking s a #

Functor (SpecM a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Spec.Monad

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> SpecM a a0 -> SpecM a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> SpecM a b -> SpecM a a0 #

Functor (Tree c) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Tree

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Tree c a -> Tree c b #

(<$) :: a -> Tree c b -> Tree c a #

Functor m => Functor (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b #

(<$) :: a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m a #

Functor ((->) r :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (r -> a) -> r -> b #

(<$) :: a -> (r -> b) -> r -> a #

class Num a where #

Basic numeric class.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Num. However, '(+)' and '(*)' are customarily expected to define a ring and have the following properties:

Associativity of (+)
(x + y) + z = x + (y + z)
Commutativity of (+)
x + y = y + x
fromInteger 0 is the additive identity
x + fromInteger 0 = x
negate gives the additive inverse
x + negate x = fromInteger 0
Associativity of (*)
(x * y) * z = x * (y * z)
fromInteger 1 is the multiplicative identity
x * fromInteger 1 = x and fromInteger 1 * x = x
Distributivity of (*) with respect to (+)
a * (b + c) = (a * b) + (a * c) and (b + c) * a = (b * a) + (c * a)

Note that it isn't customarily expected that a type instance of both Num and Ord implement an ordered ring. Indeed, in base only Integer and Rational do.

Minimal complete definition

(+), (*), abs, signum, fromInteger, (negate | (-))

Methods

(+) :: a -> a -> a infixl 6 #

(-) :: a -> a -> a infixl 6 #

(*) :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

negate :: a -> a #

Unary negation.

abs :: a -> a #

Absolute value.

signum :: a -> a #

Sign of a number. The functions abs and signum should satisfy the law:

abs x * signum x == x

For real numbers, the signum is either -1 (negative), 0 (zero) or 1 (positive).

fromInteger :: Integer -> a #

Conversion from an Integer. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer, so such literals have type (Num a) => a.

Instances
Num Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Methods

(+) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(-) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(*) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

negate :: Int -> Int #

abs :: Int -> Int #

signum :: Int -> Int #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int #

Num Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Num Natural

Note that Natural's Num instance isn't a ring: no element but 0 has an additive inverse. It is a semiring though.

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Num Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Methods

(+) :: Word -> Word -> Word #

(-) :: Word -> Word -> Word #

(*) :: Word -> Word -> Word #

negate :: Word -> Word #

abs :: Word -> Word #

signum :: Word -> Word #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Word #

Num Seconds 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Clock

Integral a => Num (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

(+) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

(-) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

(*) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

negate :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

abs :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

signum :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Ratio a #

Num a => Num (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(+) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

(-) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

(*) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

negate :: Blind a -> Blind a #

abs :: Blind a -> Blind a #

signum :: Blind a -> Blind a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Blind a #

Num a => Num (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(+) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

(-) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

(*) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

negate :: Fixed a -> Fixed a #

abs :: Fixed a -> Fixed a #

signum :: Fixed a -> Fixed a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Fixed a #

Num a => Num (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(+) :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

(-) :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

(*) :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

negate :: Large a -> Large a #

abs :: Large a -> Large a #

signum :: Large a -> Large a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Large a #

Num a => Num (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(+) :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

(-) :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

(*) :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

negate :: Small a -> Small a #

abs :: Small a -> Small a #

signum :: Small a -> Small a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Small a #

Num a => Num (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

(+) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

(-) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

(*) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

negate :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

abs :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

signum :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Shrink2 a #

class Eq a => Ord a where #

The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes.

Instances of Ord can be derived for any user-defined datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Ord. However, <= is customarily expected to implement a non-strict partial order and have the following properties:

Transitivity
if x <= y && y <= z = True, then x <= z = True
Reflexivity
x <= x = True
Antisymmetry
if x <= y && y <= x = True, then x == y = True

Note that the following operator interactions are expected to hold:

  1. x >= y = y <= x
  2. x < y = x <= y && x /= y
  3. x > y = y < x
  4. x < y = compare x y == LT
  5. x > y = compare x y == GT
  6. x == y = compare x y == EQ
  7. min x y == if x <= y then x else y = True
  8. max x y == if x >= y then x else y = True

Minimal complete definition: either compare or <=. Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.

Minimal complete definition

compare | (<=)

Methods

compare :: a -> a -> Ordering #

(<) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(<=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(>) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(>=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

max :: a -> a -> a #

min :: a -> a -> a #

Instances
Ord Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Bool -> Bool -> Ordering #

(<) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(<=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

max :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

min :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Ord Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Char -> Char -> Ordering #

(<) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(<=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

max :: Char -> Char -> Char #

min :: Char -> Char -> Char #

Ord Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Ord instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 <= (0/0 :: Double)
False

Also note that, due to the same, Ord's operator interactions are not respected by Double's instance:

>>> (0/0 :: Double) > 1
False
>>> compare (0/0 :: Double) 1
GT
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Ord Float

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Float's Ord instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 <= (0/0 :: Float)
False

Also note that, due to the same, Ord's operator interactions are not respected by Float's instance:

>>> (0/0 :: Float) > 1
False
>>> compare (0/0 :: Float) 1
GT
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Float -> Float -> Ordering #

(<) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(<=) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(>) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(>=) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

max :: Float -> Float -> Float #

min :: Float -> Float -> Float #

Ord Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Int -> Int -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

max :: Int -> Int -> Int #

min :: Int -> Int -> Int #

Ord Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Ord Ordering 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Ord Word 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Word -> Word -> Ordering #

(<) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(<=) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(>) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(>=) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

max :: Word -> Word -> Word #

min :: Word -> Word -> Word #

Ord () 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: () -> () -> Ordering #

(<) :: () -> () -> Bool #

(<=) :: () -> () -> Bool #

(>) :: () -> () -> Bool #

(>=) :: () -> () -> Bool #

max :: () -> () -> () #

min :: () -> () -> () #

Ord TyCon 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Ordering #

(<) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

(<=) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

(>) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

(>=) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

max :: TyCon -> TyCon -> TyCon #

min :: TyCon -> TyCon -> TyCon #

Ord Version

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Version

Ord ASCIIString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord UnicodeString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord PrintableString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord BigNat 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Ord AsyncException

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Ord ArrayException

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Ord ExitCode 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Ord BufferMode

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Ord Newline

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Ord NewlineMode

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Ord ArithException

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exception.Type

Ord LocalTime 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Time.LocalTime.Internal.LocalTime

Ord a => Ord [a] 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: [a] -> [a] -> Ordering #

(<) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

(<=) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

(>) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

(>=) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

max :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

min :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

Ord a => Ord (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

compare :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

max :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

min :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Integral a => Ord (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

compare :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

(>) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

max :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

min :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

Ord a => Ord (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Bool #

(>) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Bool #

max :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

min :: Blind a -> Blind a -> Blind a #

Ord a => Ord (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Bool #

(>) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Bool #

max :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

min :: Fixed a -> Fixed a -> Fixed a #

Ord a => Ord (OrderedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord a => Ord (NonEmptyList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord a => Ord (SortedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord a => Ord (Positive a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Bool #

(>) :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Bool #

max :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Positive a #

min :: Positive a -> Positive a -> Positive a #

Ord a => Ord (NonZero a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Ordering #

(<) :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Bool #

(<=) :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Bool #

(>) :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Bool #

(>=) :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> Bool #

max :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> NonZero a #

min :: NonZero a -> NonZero a -> NonZero a #

Ord a => Ord (NonNegative a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Ord a => Ord (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: Large a -> Large a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Large a -> Large a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Large a -> Large a -> Bool #

(>) :: Large a -> Large a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Large a -> Large a -> Bool #

max :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

min :: Large a -> Large a -> Large a #

Ord a => Ord (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: Small a -> Small a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Small a -> Small a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Small a -> Small a -> Bool #

(>) :: Small a -> Small a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Small a -> Small a -> Bool #

max :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

min :: Small a -> Small a -> Small a #

Ord a => Ord (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

compare :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Bool #

(>) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Bool #

max :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

min :: Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a -> Shrink2 a #

Ord a => Ord (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

compare :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Ordering #

(<) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(<=) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(>=) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

max :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a #

min :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a #

(Ord a, Ord b) => Ord (Either a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

compare :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Ordering #

(<) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(<=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(>) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(>=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

max :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

min :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

(Ord a, Ord b) => Ord (a, b) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

min :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c) => Ord (a, b, c) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

min :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

(Ord e, Ord1 m, Ord a) => Ord (ErrorT e m a) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

compare :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Ordering #

(<) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Bool #

(<=) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Bool #

(>) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Bool #

(>=) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> Bool #

max :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a #

min :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d) => Ord (a, b, c, d) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

min :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i, Ord j) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i, Ord j, Ord k) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i, Ord j, Ord k, Ord l) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i, Ord j, Ord k, Ord l, Ord m) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i, Ord j, Ord k, Ord l, Ord m, Ord n) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c, Ord d, Ord e, Ord f, Ord g, Ord h, Ord i, Ord j, Ord k, Ord l, Ord m, Ord n, Ord o) => Ord (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Ordering #

(<) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

(<=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

(>) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

(>=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

max :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

min :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

class Read a where #

Parsing of Strings, producing values.

Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey:

  • If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only infix applications of the constructor (not the prefix form).
  • Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be.
  • If the constructor is defined using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the record-syntax form, and furthermore, the fields must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
  • The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.

For example, given the declarations

infixr 5 :^:
data Tree a =  Leaf a  |  Tree a :^: Tree a

the derived instance of Read in Haskell 2010 is equivalent to

instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

        readsPrec d r =  readParen (d > app_prec)
                         (\r -> [(Leaf m,t) |
                                 ("Leaf",s) <- lex r,
                                 (m,t) <- readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r

                      ++ readParen (d > up_prec)
                         (\r -> [(u:^:v,w) |
                                 (u,s) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) r,
                                 (":^:",t) <- lex s,
                                 (v,w) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r

          where app_prec = 10
                up_prec = 5

Note that right-associativity of :^: is unused.

The derived instance in GHC is equivalent to

instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

        readPrec = parens $ (prec app_prec $ do
                                 Ident "Leaf" <- lexP
                                 m <- step readPrec
                                 return (Leaf m))

                     +++ (prec up_prec $ do
                                 u <- step readPrec
                                 Symbol ":^:" <- lexP
                                 v <- step readPrec
                                 return (u :^: v))

          where app_prec = 10
                up_prec = 5

        readListPrec = readListPrecDefault

Why do both readsPrec and readPrec exist, and why does GHC opt to implement readPrec in derived Read instances instead of readsPrec? The reason is that readsPrec is based on the ReadS type, and although ReadS is mentioned in the Haskell 2010 Report, it is not a very efficient parser data structure.

readPrec, on the other hand, is based on a much more efficient ReadPrec datatype (a.k.a "new-style parsers"), but its definition relies on the use of the RankNTypes language extension. Therefore, readPrec (and its cousin, readListPrec) are marked as GHC-only. Nevertheless, it is recommended to use readPrec instead of readsPrec whenever possible for the efficiency improvements it brings.

As mentioned above, derived Read instances in GHC will implement readPrec instead of readsPrec. The default implementations of readsPrec (and its cousin, readList) will simply use readPrec under the hood. If you are writing a Read instance by hand, it is recommended to write it like so:

instance Read T where
  readPrec     = ...
  readListPrec = readListPrecDefault

Minimal complete definition

readsPrec | readPrec

Methods

readsPrec #

Arguments

:: Int

the operator precedence of the enclosing context (a number from 0 to 11). Function application has precedence 10.

-> ReadS a 

attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty.

Derived instances of Read and Show satisfy the following:

That is, readsPrec parses the string produced by showsPrec, and delivers the value that showsPrec started with.

readList :: ReadS [a] #

The method readList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of parsing lists of values. For example, this is used by the predefined Read instance of the Char type, where values of type String should be are expected to use double quotes, rather than square brackets.

Instances
Read Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Float

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word

Since: base-4.5.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS () #

readList :: ReadS [()] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec () #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [()] #

Read Version

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Version

Read Args 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Test

Read ASCIIString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read UnicodeString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read PrintableString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read ExitCode 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Read BufferMode

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Read Newline

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Read NewlineMode

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Read Lexeme

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read GeneralCategory

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Location 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example.Location

Read a => Read [a]

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS [a] #

readList :: ReadS [[a]] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec [a] #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [[a]] #

Read a => Read (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

(Integral a, Read a) => Read (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read a => Read (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (OrderedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (NonEmptyList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (SortedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (Positive a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (NonZero a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (NonNegative a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Read a => Read (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

(Read a, Read b) => Read (Either a b)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

(Read a, Read b) => Read (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b)] #

(Ix a, Read a, Read b) => Read (Array a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

(Read a, Read b, Read c) => Read (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c)] #

(Read e, Read1 m, Read a) => Read (ErrorT e m a) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (ErrorT e m a) #

readList :: ReadS [ErrorT e m a] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (ErrorT e m a) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [ErrorT e m a] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d) => Read (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e) => Read (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l, Read m) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l, Read m, Read n) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l, Read m, Read n, Read o) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)] #

class (Num a, Ord a) => Real a where #

Methods

toRational :: a -> Rational #

the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision

Instances
Real Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Int -> Rational #

Real Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Real Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Real Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Word -> Rational #

Integral a => Real (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Ratio a -> Rational #

Real a => Real (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

toRational :: Blind a -> Rational #

Real a => Real (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

toRational :: Fixed a -> Rational #

Real a => Real (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

toRational :: Large a -> Rational #

Real a => Real (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

toRational :: Small a -> Rational #

Real a => Real (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

toRational :: Shrink2 a -> Rational #

class (RealFrac a, Floating a) => RealFloat a where #

Efficient, machine-independent access to the components of a floating-point number.

Methods

floatRadix :: a -> Integer #

a constant function, returning the radix of the representation (often 2)

floatDigits :: a -> Int #

a constant function, returning the number of digits of floatRadix in the significand

floatRange :: a -> (Int, Int) #

a constant function, returning the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume

decodeFloat :: a -> (Integer, Int) #

The function decodeFloat applied to a real floating-point number returns the significand expressed as an Integer and an appropriately scaled exponent (an Int). If decodeFloat x yields (m,n), then x is equal in value to m*b^^n, where b is the floating-point radix, and furthermore, either m and n are both zero or else b^(d-1) <= abs m < b^d, where d is the value of floatDigits x. In particular, decodeFloat 0 = (0,0). If the type contains a negative zero, also decodeFloat (-0.0) = (0,0). The result of decodeFloat x is unspecified if either of isNaN x or isInfinite x is True.

encodeFloat :: Integer -> Int -> a #

encodeFloat performs the inverse of decodeFloat in the sense that for finite x with the exception of -0.0, uncurry encodeFloat (decodeFloat x) = x. encodeFloat m n is one of the two closest representable floating-point numbers to m*b^^n (or ±Infinity if overflow occurs); usually the closer, but if m contains too many bits, the result may be rounded in the wrong direction.

exponent :: a -> Int #

exponent corresponds to the second component of decodeFloat. exponent 0 = 0 and for finite nonzero x, exponent x = snd (decodeFloat x) + floatDigits x. If x is a finite floating-point number, it is equal in value to significand x * b ^^ exponent x, where b is the floating-point radix. The behaviour is unspecified on infinite or NaN values.

significand :: a -> a #

The first component of decodeFloat, scaled to lie in the open interval (-1,1), either 0.0 or of absolute value >= 1/b, where b is the floating-point radix. The behaviour is unspecified on infinite or NaN values.

scaleFloat :: Int -> a -> a #

multiplies a floating-point number by an integer power of the radix

isNaN :: a -> Bool #

True if the argument is an IEEE "not-a-number" (NaN) value

isInfinite :: a -> Bool #

True if the argument is an IEEE infinity or negative infinity

isDenormalized :: a -> Bool #

True if the argument is too small to be represented in normalized format

isNegativeZero :: a -> Bool #

True if the argument is an IEEE negative zero

isIEEE :: a -> Bool #

True if the argument is an IEEE floating point number

atan2 :: a -> a -> a #

a version of arctangent taking two real floating-point arguments. For real floating x and y, atan2 y x computes the angle (from the positive x-axis) of the vector from the origin to the point (x,y). atan2 y x returns a value in the range [-pi, pi]. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when signed zeroes are supported. atan2 y 1, with y in a type that is RealFloat, should return the same value as atan y. A default definition of atan2 is provided, but implementors can provide a more accurate implementation.

class (Real a, Fractional a) => RealFrac a where #

Extracting components of fractions.

Minimal complete definition

properFraction

Methods

properFraction :: Integral b => a -> (b, a) #

The function properFraction takes a real fractional number x and returns a pair (n,f) such that x = n+f, and:

  • n is an integral number with the same sign as x; and
  • f is a fraction with the same type and sign as x, and with absolute value less than 1.

The default definitions of the ceiling, floor, truncate and round functions are in terms of properFraction.

truncate :: Integral b => a -> b #

truncate x returns the integer nearest x between zero and x

round :: Integral b => a -> b #

round x returns the nearest integer to x; the even integer if x is equidistant between two integers

ceiling :: Integral b => a -> b #

ceiling x returns the least integer not less than x

floor :: Integral b => a -> b #

floor x returns the greatest integer not greater than x

Instances
Integral a => RealFrac (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

properFraction :: Integral b => Ratio a -> (b, Ratio a) #

truncate :: Integral b => Ratio a -> b #

round :: Integral b => Ratio a -> b #

ceiling :: Integral b => Ratio a -> b #

floor :: Integral b => Ratio a -> b #

class Show a where #

Conversion of values to readable Strings.

Derived instances of Show have the following properties, which are compatible with derived instances of Read:

  • The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the fixity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names defined in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor fields are used, braces, commas, field names, and equal signs are also used.
  • If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then showsPrec will produce infix applications of the constructor.
  • the representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the top-level constructor in x is less than d (associativity is ignored). Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression.
  • If the constructor is defined using record syntax, then show will produce the record-syntax form, with the fields given in the same order as the original declaration.

For example, given the declarations

infixr 5 :^:
data Tree a =  Leaf a  |  Tree a :^: Tree a

the derived instance of Show is equivalent to

instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where

       showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) $
            showString "Leaf " . showsPrec (app_prec+1) m
         where app_prec = 10

       showsPrec d (u :^: v) = showParen (d > up_prec) $
            showsPrec (up_prec+1) u .
            showString " :^: "      .
            showsPrec (up_prec+1) v
         where up_prec = 5

Note that right-associativity of :^: is ignored. For example,

  • show (Leaf 1 :^: Leaf 2 :^: Leaf 3) produces the string "Leaf 1 :^: (Leaf 2 :^: Leaf 3)".

Minimal complete definition

showsPrec | show

Methods

showsPrec #

Arguments

:: Int

the operator precedence of the enclosing context (a number from 0 to 11). Function application has precedence 10.

-> a

the value to be converted to a String

-> ShowS 

Convert a value to a readable String.

showsPrec should satisfy the law

showsPrec d x r ++ s  ==  showsPrec d x (r ++ s)

Derived instances of Read and Show satisfy the following:

That is, readsPrec parses the string produced by showsPrec, and delivers the value that showsPrec started with.

show :: a -> String #

A specialised variant of showsPrec, using precedence context zero, and returning an ordinary String.

showList :: [a] -> ShowS #

The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. For example, this is used by the predefined Show instance of the Char type, where values of type String should be shown in double quotes, rather than between square brackets.

Instances
Show Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Bool -> ShowS #

show :: Bool -> String #

showList :: [Bool] -> ShowS #

Show Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Char -> ShowS #

show :: Char -> String #

showList :: [Char] -> ShowS #

Show Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int -> ShowS #

show :: Int -> String #

showList :: [Int] -> ShowS #

Show Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Word -> ShowS #

show :: Word -> String #

showList :: [Word] -> ShowS #

Show RuntimeRep

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show VecCount

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show VecElem

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show CallStack

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> () -> ShowS #

show :: () -> String #

showList :: [()] -> ShowS #

Show TyCon

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> TyCon -> ShowS #

show :: TyCon -> String #

showList :: [TyCon] -> ShowS #

Show Module

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show TrName

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show KindRep 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show TypeLitSort

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show HUnitFailure 
Instance details

Defined in Test.HUnit.Lang

Show FailureReason 
Instance details

Defined in Test.HUnit.Lang

Show Result 
Instance details

Defined in Test.HUnit.Lang

Show Version

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Version

Show Args 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Test

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Args -> ShowS #

show :: Args -> String #

showList :: [Args] -> ShowS #

Show Result 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Test

Show Confidence 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.State

Show ASCIIString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show UnicodeString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show PrintableString 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show Handle

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Show HandleType

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> HandleType -> ShowS #

show :: HandleType -> String #

showList :: [HandleType] -> ShowS #

Show BlockedIndefinitelyOnMVar

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show BlockedIndefinitelyOnSTM

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show Deadlock

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show AllocationLimitExceeded

Since: base-4.7.1.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show CompactionFailed

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show AssertionFailed

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show SomeAsyncException

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show AsyncException

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show ArrayException

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show FixIOException

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show ExitCode 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show IOErrorType

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show BufferMode

Since: base-4.2.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Show Newline

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Show NewlineMode

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types

Show MaskingState

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO

Show IOException

Since: base-4.1.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO.Exception

Show ArithException

Since: base-4.0.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exception.Type

Show SrcLoc

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show SomeException

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Exception.Type

Show Summary 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Runner

Show ColorMode 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Config.Options

Show Params 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example

Show Result 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example

Show ResultStatus 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example

Show FailureReason 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example

Show Location 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Example.Location

Show Seconds 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Clock

Show ZonedTime 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Time.LocalTime.Internal.ZonedTime

Show LocalTime 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Time.LocalTime.Internal.LocalTime

Show DateFormatSpec 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Time.Format.Parse

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> DateFormatSpec -> ShowS #

show :: DateFormatSpec -> String #

showList :: [DateFormatSpec] -> ShowS #

Show Padding 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Time.Format.Parse

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Padding -> ShowS #

show :: Padding -> String #

showList :: [Padding] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show [a]

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> [a] -> ShowS #

show :: [a] -> String #

showList :: [[a]] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Maybe a -> ShowS #

show :: Maybe a -> String #

showList :: [Maybe a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Ratio a -> ShowS #

show :: Ratio a -> String #

showList :: [Ratio a] -> ShowS #

Show (Blind a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Blind a -> ShowS #

show :: Blind a -> String #

showList :: [Blind a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Fixed a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Fixed a -> ShowS #

show :: Fixed a -> String #

showList :: [Fixed a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (OrderedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show a => Show (NonEmptyList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show a => Show (InfiniteList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show a => Show (SortedList a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show a => Show (Positive a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Positive a -> ShowS #

show :: Positive a -> String #

showList :: [Positive a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (NonZero a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> NonZero a -> ShowS #

show :: NonZero a -> String #

showList :: [NonZero a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (NonNegative a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Show a => Show (Large a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Large a -> ShowS #

show :: Large a -> String #

showList :: [Large a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Small a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Small a -> ShowS #

show :: Small a -> String #

showList :: [Small a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Shrink2 a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Shrink2 a -> ShowS #

show :: Shrink2 a -> String #

showList :: [Shrink2 a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Smart a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Smart a -> ShowS #

show :: Smart a -> String #

showList :: [Smart a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> NonEmpty a -> ShowS #

show :: NonEmpty a -> String #

showList :: [NonEmpty a] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b) => Show (Either a b)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Either a b -> ShowS #

show :: Either a b -> String #

showList :: [Either a b] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b) => Show (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b) => Show (a :-> b) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Function

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a :-> b) -> ShowS #

show :: (a :-> b) -> String #

showList :: [a :-> b] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b) => Show (Fun a b) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Function

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Fun a b -> ShowS #

show :: Fun a b -> String #

showList :: [Fun a b] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Shrinking s a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Modifiers

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Shrinking s a -> ShowS #

show :: Shrinking s a -> String #

showList :: [Shrinking s a] -> ShowS #

(Show c, Show a) => Show (Tree c a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Tree

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Tree c a -> ShowS #

show :: Tree c a -> String #

showList :: [Tree c a] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c) => Show (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c)] -> ShowS #

(Show e, Show1 m, Show a) => Show (ErrorT e m a) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> ErrorT e m a -> ShowS #

show :: ErrorT e m a -> String #

showList :: [ErrorT e m a] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d) => Show (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e) => Show (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l, Show m) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l, Show m, Show n) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l, Show m, Show n, Show o) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)] -> ShowS #

class Functor f => Applicative (f :: Type -> Type) where #

A functor with application, providing operations to

  • embed pure expressions (pure), and
  • sequence computations and combine their results (<*> and liftA2).

A minimal complete definition must include implementations of pure and of either <*> or liftA2. If it defines both, then they must behave the same as their default definitions:

(<*>) = liftA2 id
liftA2 f x y = f <$> x <*> y

Further, any definition must satisfy the following:

identity
pure id <*> v = v
composition
pure (.) <*> u <*> v <*> w = u <*> (v <*> w)
homomorphism
pure f <*> pure x = pure (f x)
interchange
u <*> pure y = pure ($ y) <*> u

The other methods have the following default definitions, which may be overridden with equivalent specialized implementations:

As a consequence of these laws, the Functor instance for f will satisfy

It may be useful to note that supposing

forall x y. p (q x y) = f x . g y

it follows from the above that

liftA2 p (liftA2 q u v) = liftA2 f u . liftA2 g v

If f is also a Monad, it should satisfy

(which implies that pure and <*> satisfy the applicative functor laws).

Minimal complete definition

pure, ((<*>) | liftA2)

Methods

pure :: a -> f a #

Lift a value.

(<*>) :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #

Sequential application.

A few functors support an implementation of <*> that is more efficient than the default one.

(*>) :: f a -> f b -> f b infixl 4 #

Sequence actions, discarding the value of the first argument.

(<*) :: f a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #

Sequence actions, discarding the value of the second argument.

Instances
Applicative []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> [a] #

(<*>) :: [a -> b] -> [a] -> [b] #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] #

(*>) :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] #

(<*) :: [a] -> [b] -> [a] #

Applicative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> Maybe a #

(<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c #

(*>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

(<*) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Applicative IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> IO a #

(<*>) :: IO (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> IO a -> IO b -> IO c #

(*>) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b #

(<*) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO a #

Applicative Rose 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Property

Methods

pure :: a -> Rose a #

(<*>) :: Rose (a -> b) -> Rose a -> Rose b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Rose a -> Rose b -> Rose c #

(*>) :: Rose a -> Rose b -> Rose b #

(<*) :: Rose a -> Rose b -> Rose a #

Applicative Gen 
Instance details

Defined in Test.QuickCheck.Gen

Methods

pure :: a -> Gen a #

(<*>) :: Gen (a -> b) -> Gen a -> Gen b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Gen a -> Gen b -> Gen c #

(*>) :: Gen a -> Gen b -> Gen b #

(<*) :: Gen a -> Gen b -> Gen a #

Applicative ReadP

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

pure :: a -> ReadP a #

(<*>) :: ReadP (a -> b) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP c #

(*>) :: ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP b #

(<*) :: ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP a #

Applicative NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> NonEmpty a #

(<*>) :: NonEmpty (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty c #

(*>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty b #

(<*) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a #

Applicative P

Since: base-4.5.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

pure :: a -> P a #

(<*>) :: P (a -> b) -> P a -> P b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> P a -> P b -> P c #

(*>) :: P a -> P b -> P b #

(<*) :: P a -> P b -> P a #

Applicative (Either e)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

pure :: a -> Either e a #

(<*>) :: Either e (a -> b) -> Either e a -> Either e b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e c #

(*>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

(<*) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e a #

Monoid a => Applicative ((,) a)

For tuples, the Monoid constraint on a determines how the first values merge. For example, Strings concatenate:

("hello ", (+15)) <*> ("world!", 2002)
("hello world!",2017)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a0 -> (a, a0) #

(<*>) :: (a, a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) #

(*>) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

(<*) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) #

Applicative (SpecM a) 
Instance details

Defined in Test.Hspec.Core.Spec.Monad

Methods

pure :: a0 -> SpecM a a0 #

(<*>) :: SpecM a (a0 -> b) -> SpecM a a0 -> SpecM a b #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> SpecM a a0 -> SpecM a b -> SpecM a c #

(*>) :: SpecM a a0 -> SpecM a b -> SpecM a b #

(<*) :: SpecM a a0 -> SpecM a b -> SpecM a a0 #

(Functor m, Monad m) => Applicative (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

pure :: a -> ErrorT e m a #

(<*>) :: ErrorT e m (a -> b) -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m c #

(*>) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m b #

(<*) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m a #

Applicative ((->) a :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a0 -> a -> a0 #

(<*>) :: (a -> (a0 -> b)) -> (a -> a0) -> a -> b #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c #

(*>) :: (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

(<*) :: (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> a0 #

class Foldable (t :: Type -> Type) where #

Data structures that can be folded.

For example, given a data type

data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)

a suitable instance would be

instance Foldable Tree where
   foldMap f Empty = mempty
   foldMap f (Leaf x) = f x
   foldMap f (Node l k r) = foldMap f l `mappend` f k `mappend` foldMap f r

This is suitable even for abstract types, as the monoid is assumed to satisfy the monoid laws. Alternatively, one could define foldr:

instance Foldable Tree where
   foldr f z Empty = z
   foldr f z (Leaf x) = f x z
   foldr f z (Node l k r) = foldr f (f k (foldr f z r)) l

Foldable instances are expected to satisfy the following laws:

foldr f z t = appEndo (foldMap (Endo . f) t ) z
foldl f z t = appEndo (getDual (foldMap (Dual . Endo . flip f) t)) z
fold = foldMap id
length = getSum . foldMap (Sum . const  1)

sum, product, maximum, and minimum should all be essentially equivalent to foldMap forms, such as

sum = getSum . foldMap Sum

but may be less defined.

If the type is also a Functor instance, it should satisfy

foldMap f = fold . fmap f

which implies that

foldMap f . fmap g = foldMap (f . g)

Minimal complete definition

foldMap | foldr

Methods

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m #

Map each element of the structure to a monoid, and combine the results.

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #

Right-associative fold of a structure.

In the case of lists, foldr, when applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:

foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)

Note that, since the head of the resulting expression is produced by an application of the operator to the first element of the list, foldr can produce a terminating expression from an infinite list.

For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to,

foldr f z = foldr f z . toList

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #

Left-associative fold of a structure.

In the case of lists, foldl, when applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to right:

foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn

Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the entire input list must be traversed. This means that foldl' will diverge if given an infinite list.

Also note that if you want an efficient left-fold, you probably want to use foldl' instead of foldl. The reason for this is that latter does not force the "inner" results (e.g. z f x1 in the above example) before applying them to the operator (e.g. to (f x2)). This results in a thunk chain O(n) elements long, which then must be evaluated from the outside-in.

For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to,

foldl f z = foldl f z . toList

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #

A variant of foldr that has no base case, and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.

foldr1 f = foldr1 f . toList

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #

A variant of foldl that ha