keera-hails-reactivevalues-0.6.0: Haskell on Rails - Reactive Values

Copyright (C) Keera Studios Ltd 2013 BSD3 support@keera.co.uk Safe Haskell2010

Data.ReactiveValue

Description

Reactive Values (RVs) are typed mutable variables with a change notification mechanism. They are defined by providing a way to read the value, a way to change it, and a way to install an react when the value has changed.

RVs are abstract (i.e., a type class). This module defines a class and manipulation operations, but you need an actual instance of RV underneath. For a way to turn IORefs into RVs, see the example below. GUI toolkits can use existing event-handling mechanisms to make widget attributes Reactive Values without additional boilerplate. A number of backends (GUIs, devices, files, network, FRP) are supported.

RVs are complemented with Reactive Relations, which connect RVs and keep them in sync during execution.

A very simple example of an RV is the following construction, in which passive IORefs are turned into active Reactive Values.

import Control.Concurrent (threadDelay)

-- From the package keera-callbacks
import Data.CBRef         (installCallbackCBRef, newCBRef, readCBRef,
writeCBRef)

-- From keera-hails-reactivevalues
import Data.ReactiveValue (ReactiveFieldReadWrite (..), ReactiveFieldWrite,
reactiveValueModify, wrapMW, (=:>))

main :: IO ()
main = do

-- Empower IORef with callback installation mechanism
--
-- passiveCBRef :: CBRRef Integer
passiveCBRef <- newCBRef 0

-- Turn IORef into active reactive value (RV).
--
-- We use the type of Reactive Fields, which have a trivial RV implementation.
let activeCBRefRV :: ReactiveFieldReadWrite IO Integer
(writeCBRef           passiveCBRef)
(installCallbackCBRef passiveCBRef)

-- Define a write-only RV that prints whatever you put in it.
let printer :: Show a => ReactiveFieldWrite IO a
printer = wrapMW print

-- Connect them using a reactive rule. In a GUI application, this code would
-- in the controller, and would define connections between the model and
-- the view.
--
-- For bi-directional connections, see (=:=).
activeCBRefRV =:> printer

-- To demonstrate the connection, just loop forever and increment the
-- first reactive value. The change will propagate through the channel
-- and be printed on the screen every second.
forever $do threadDelay 1000000 -- 1 second reactiveValueModify activeCBRefRV (+1)  For further explanations on reactive values, see the Haskell Symposium paper and the demos in our repository. Synopsis # Reactive Values Reactive Values are an abstraction over values that change over the execution of a program, and whose change we can be aware of. There is no unique, canonical implementation of RVs: they are defined as a collection of type classes, and you are free to make your existing framework reactive by providing the necessary instances. RVs are distinguished by the API they offer, mainly whether it is possible to read them, to write to them, or both. A readable RV is one that whose value we can read (whether it is read-only or read-write, or whether it will actively propagate changes to it or not, is a different matter). Analogously, a writable RV is one that we can write to (write-only or read-write). We also distinguish between active RVs (i.e., those that actively propagate changes through the Reactive Relations they are connected to) and passive RVs (those that do not propagate changes). It is possible to "silence" an RV by minimizing unnecesssary change, or attaching it to another RV that determines when change propagates (see governing and guarding below). ## Readable Reactive Values Readable reactive values are mutable values that can be read and, possibly, trigger notifications when they change. RVs without event handling are considered passive. That is their default behaviour if reactiveValueOnCanRead is not specialised. BEWARE: Active and passive RVs are not differentiated at the type level. You are responsible of installing any potential thread-safety mechanisms when you implement instances, and to ensure that operations are executed in the right thread (some GUI toolkits may require that). It is important that the way that ensured that monadic actions are executed in the right thread can be nested; otherwise, some propagation can block. class Monad m => ReactiveValueRead a b m | a -> b, a -> m where Source # A class for all Readable RVs. They can be read-only or read-write. If your type is also writeable (a writable RV or simply if it is not constant), you can include a change handler installer here. By default no change handlers are installed. Use a monad with "error" if reading or installing a handler can fail. Minimal complete definition reactiveValueRead Methods reactiveValueOnCanRead :: a -> m () -> m () Source # Install a handler that will be executed when the reactive value changes. reactiveValueRead :: a -> m b Source # Provide the last known value for this reactive value. Instances  Source # Monadic actions are readable, but they do not provide any change notification. Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueOnCanRead :: IO a -> IO () -> IO () Source #reactiveValueRead :: IO a -> IO a Source # (Functor m, Monad m) => ReactiveValueRead (m a, a -> m b) a m Source # Pairs carrying a monadic action as their first component are Readable RVs. Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueOnCanRead :: (m a, a -> m b) -> m () -> m () Source #reactiveValueRead :: (m a, a -> m b) -> m a Source # Monad m => ReactiveValueRead (ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueOnCanRead :: ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a -> m () -> m () Source #reactiveValueRead :: ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a -> m a Source # Monad m => ReactiveValueRead (ReactiveFieldRead m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueOnCanRead :: ReactiveFieldRead m a -> m () -> m () Source #reactiveValueRead :: ReactiveFieldRead m a -> m a Source # ## Writable Reactive Values Writable reactive values are those that we can write to. They behave like sinks: there are no guarantees that anything happens, or result codes. You are responsible of installing any potential thread-safety mechanisms when you implement instances, and to ensure that operations are executed in the right thread (some GUI toolkits may require that). It is important that the way that ensured that monadic actions are executed in the right thread can be nested; otherwise, some propagation can block. class ReactiveValueWrite a b m | a -> b, a -> m where Source # A minimal type class for all mutable values. Use a monad with error if changing the value can fail. Methods reactiveValueWrite :: a -> b -> m () Source # Instances  ReactiveValueWrite (IO a) () IO Source # Monadic actions are trivially writable RVs in that monad, by ignoring the argument and executing the action. This is particularly suitable for IO code that just runs an action when a given value changes. Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueWrite :: IO a -> () -> IO () Source # (Functor m, Monad m) => ReactiveValueWrite (a -> m b) a m Source # Monadic actions parameterised over an input are trivially writable RVs in that monad. This is particularly suitable for IO code that just runs an action when a given value changes, using that value. Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueWrite :: (a -> m b) -> a -> m () Source # ReactiveValueWrite (a -> m b) a m => ReactiveValueWrite (m a, a -> m b) a m Source # To facilitate creating RW reactive values from monadic actions, pairs of a getter and a setter are also RVs. Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueWrite :: (m a, a -> m b) -> a -> m () Source # Monad m => ReactiveValueWrite (ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueWrite :: ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a -> a -> m () Source # Monad m => ReactiveValueWrite (ReactiveFieldWrite m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueWrite :: ReactiveFieldWrite m a -> a -> m () Source # ## Read-Write Reactive Values RVs can be readable and writable, which is useful to create bi-directional rules (combinators like '(=:=)' require this instance). class (ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueWrite a b m) => ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m Source # Read-write Reactive Values are trivially defined. This class only captures the constraints of both the other classes. There is no need to implement any methods. Instances  (Functor m, Monad m) => ReactiveValueReadWrite (m a, a -> m b) a m Source # Pairs of a monadic action and a parametric monadic action are also RVs Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue Monad m => ReactiveValueReadWrite (ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue # Reactive Relations or Rules Reactive Rules are data dependency (data-passing) building combinators. By executing them, you install the right event handlers on the right RVs, so that values pass to the other RV. Reactive Relations cannot be independently removed. If the event-dispatching is handled internally by RVs, and two connected RVs are removed, then the rules should also disappear with them. (=:>) :: Monad m => (ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueWrite c b m) => a -> c -> m () infix 9 Source # Left to right RV synchronisation function. If the value on the left changes, the one on the right is updated accordingly. (=:=) :: Monad m => (ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m, ReactiveValueReadWrite c b m) => a -> c -> m () infix 9 Source # Bidirectional synchronisation. When either value changes, the other is updated accordingly. (<:=) :: Monad m => (ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueWrite c b m) => c -> a -> m () infix 9 Source # Right-to-left RV synchronisation function. If the value on the right changes, the one on the left is updated accordingly. # Reactive Fields (pure RVs) This is a specific implementation of RVs that does not have a custom event queue. It can be used to return RVs in the combinators, by relying on the underlying change detection and event notification system (underlying meaning or the RV that these were created from). data ReactiveFieldRead m a Source # A Read-Only RV. Constructors  ReactiveFieldRead (FieldGetter m a) (FieldNotifier m a) Instances  (Functor m, Monad m) => Functor (ReactiveFieldRead m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue Methodsfmap :: (a -> b) -> ReactiveFieldRead m a -> ReactiveFieldRead m b #(<$) :: a -> ReactiveFieldRead m b -> ReactiveFieldRead m a # Monad m => ReactiveValueRead (ReactiveFieldRead m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueOnCanRead :: ReactiveFieldRead m a -> m () -> m () Source #reactiveValueRead :: ReactiveFieldRead m a -> m a Source #

newtype ReactiveFieldWrite m a Source #

A Write-Only RV.

Constructors

 ReactiveFieldWrite (FieldSetter m a)
Instances
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue Methodscontramap :: (a -> b) -> ReactiveFieldWrite m b -> ReactiveFieldWrite m a #(>\$) :: b -> ReactiveFieldWrite m b -> ReactiveFieldWrite m a # Monad m => ReactiveValueWrite (ReactiveFieldWrite m a) a m Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue MethodsreactiveValueWrite :: ReactiveFieldWrite m a -> a -> m () Source #

Constructors

 ReactiveFieldReadWrite (FieldSetter m a) (FieldGetter m a) (FieldNotifier m a)
Instances

These are used internally for combinators that need to return RV instances. They can also be used to write new backends and library extensions, but they are not recommended to enclose application models. For that purpose, see light models and protected models instead.

type FieldGetter m a = m a Source #

The type of a monadic value producer (a getter, a source).

type FieldSetter m a = a -> m () Source #

The type of a monadic value consumer (a setter, a sink, a slot).

type FieldNotifier m a = m () -> m () Source #

The type of an event handler installer

# RV creation and manipulation

constR :: Monad m => a -> ReactiveFieldRead m a Source #

A trivial RV builder with a constant value. We need this because we cannot have overlapping instances with a default case, and because the interpretation of lifting with RVs could be very confusing unless values are lifted into RVs explicitly.

initRW :: Monad m => a -> ReactiveFieldRead m a Source #

TODO: Bad name. Should be eliminated or extended with a setter.

liftR :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a b m) => (b -> c) -> a -> ReactiveFieldRead m c Source #

Lift a transformation onto a RV. Note that this creates a new RV, it does not modify the existing RV.

(<^>) :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a b m) => (b -> c) -> a -> ReactiveFieldRead m c Source #

Shorter name for liftR

liftR2 :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueRead c d m) => (b -> d -> e) -> a -> c -> ReactiveFieldRead m e Source #

Lift a transformation onto two RVs. Note that this creates a new RV, it does not modify the existing RVs. When either RV changes, the new one triggers a change.

liftR3 :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueRead c d m, ReactiveValueRead e f m) => (b -> d -> f -> g) -> a -> c -> e -> ReactiveFieldRead m g Source #

Lift a transformation onto three RVs. Note that this creates a new RV, it does not modify the existing RVs. When either RV changes, the new one triggers a change.

liftMR :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a b m) => (b -> m c) -> a -> ReactiveFieldRead m c Source #

Lift a parameterised monadic transformation onto an RV.

Same as lifting join . f?

readOnly :: ReactiveValueRead r a m => r -> ReactiveFieldRead m a Source #

Make a RW RV read only

wrapMR :: m a -> (m () -> m ()) -> ReactiveFieldRead m a Source #

Wrap an reading operation and an notification installer in a readable reactive value.

wrapMRPassive :: Monad m => m a -> ReactiveFieldRead m a Source #

Wrap an reading operation into an RV. Because there is no way to detect changes, the resulting RV is passive (does not push updates).

eventR :: Monad m => (m () -> m ()) -> ReactiveFieldRead m () Source #

Wrap event-handler installers in RVs

lMerge :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a v m, ReactiveValueRead b v m) => a -> b -> ReactiveFieldRead m v Source #

Left merge (give priority to the value on the left)

rMerge :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a v m, ReactiveValueRead b v m) => a -> b -> ReactiveFieldRead m v Source #

Right merge (give priority to the value on the right)

## Writable RVs

constW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueWrite v a m) => a -> v -> ReactiveFieldWrite m b Source #

Create a constant writable RV.

liftW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueWrite a b m) => (c -> b) -> a -> ReactiveFieldWrite m c Source #

Lift a transformation onto an RV. This creates a new RV, it does not actually modify the old RV (when this one is written to, so will be the old one, but both will keep existing somewhat independently).

liftW2 :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueWrite a b m, ReactiveValueWrite d e m) => (c -> (b, e)) -> a -> d -> ReactiveFieldWrite m c Source #

Lift a transformation onto two RVs. This creates a new RV, it does not actually modify the old RVs (when this one is written to, so will be the old ones, but both will keep existing somewhat independently).

(&.&) :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueWrite a b m, ReactiveValueWrite c b m) => a -> c -> ReactiveFieldWrite m b Source #

Binary writable replicator.

r1 &.& r2 = liftW2 (x -> (x,x)) r1 r2

liftMW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueWrite a b m) => (c -> m b) -> a -> ReactiveFieldWrite m c Source #

Lift a parameterised monadic transformation onto an RV.

writeOnly :: ReactiveValueWrite r a m => r -> ReactiveFieldWrite m a Source #

Make a RW RV write only

wrapMW :: (a -> m ()) -> ReactiveFieldWrite m a Source #

Wrap a monadic computation in a writable reactive value.

wrapDo :: m () -> ReactiveFieldWrite m a Source #

Wrap a monadic computation in a writable reactive value. It discards the written value and executes the operation.

Note: Because the value is discarded, the resulting RV is polymorphic in the value that may be written to it. Using wrapDo_ may save you some extra type signatures.

NOTE: this should be unnecessary since the introduction of a default ReactiveValueWrite instance for monadic actions.

wrapDo_ :: m () -> ReactiveFieldWrite m () Source #

Wrap a monadic computation in a writable reactive value of type unit. It discards the written value and executes the operation.

liftRW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m) => BijectiveFunc b c -> a -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m c Source #

Lift a bijection onto a read-write RV

liftRW2 :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m, ReactiveValueReadWrite c d m) => BijectiveFunc e (b, d) -> a -> c -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m e Source #

Lift a bijection onto two read-write RVs

pairRW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m, ReactiveValueReadWrite c d m) => a -> c -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m (b, d) Source #

Pair two read-write RVs

modRW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m) => (b -> c -> b) -> a -> ReactiveFieldWrite m c Source #

Lift a function that takes an old value and a new input and creates a new value. It is similar to how fold works: the RV represents the accumulator, and the values are provided in succession by writing to the resulting RV.

#### Bijective functions

data BijectiveFunc a b Source #

Bijections

Instances
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Data.ReactiveValue Methodsgmap :: BijectiveFunc a b -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m b Source #

bijection :: (a -> b, b -> a) -> BijectiveFunc a b Source #

Create a bijection (BijectiveFunc) from a couple of functions

direct :: BijectiveFunc a b -> a -> b Source #

Obtain the direct function from a bijection

inverse :: BijectiveFunc a b -> b -> a Source #

Obtain the inverse function from a bijection

type Involution a = BijectiveFunc a a Source #

Involutions (functions that are the same as their inverse)

involution :: (a -> a) -> Involution a Source #

Create an involution from a function

#### Low-level operations

reactiveValueModify :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m) => a -> (b -> b) -> m () Source #

Apply a modification to an RV. This modification is not attached to the RV, and there are no guarantees that it will be atomic (if you need atomicity, check out STM).

# Controlling change

Sometimes you need to create complex liftings between RVs in which only changes to one of them should provoke change propagation. These combinators allow you to stop propagation (making RVs passive), make one RV control the change propagation of another (governance), filter propagation based on some condition (guards) and have a boolean-carrying RV guard another.

## Stopping change propagation

eqCheck :: (Eq v, Monad m) => ReactiveFieldReadWrite m v -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m v Source #

Add an equality check to the setter of a Read-Write RV, effectively stopping all unnecessary change (the RV is not modified if it has not changed).

passivelyR :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead a b m) => a -> ReactiveFieldRead m b Source #

Create a passive RO RV backed by another Readable RV by disabling change propagation.

passivelyRW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueReadWrite a b m) => a -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m b Source #

Create a passive RW RV backed by another RW RV by disabling change propagation.

## Governing

governingR :: (ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueRead c d m) => a -> c -> ReactiveFieldRead m d Source #

A form of binary readable lifting that passifies the second RV but reads exclusively from it.

governingR r1 r2 = rMerge r1 (passively r2)

governingRW :: (ReactiveValueRead a b m, ReactiveValueReadWrite c d m) => a -> c -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m d Source #

A form of binary read-writable lifting that passifies the second RV but reads exclusively from it.

## Guarding

ifRW :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead c Bool m, ReactiveValueReadWrite v a m) => c -> v -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a Source #

Check condition, and write or notify only when it holds.

ifRW_ :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead c Bool m, ReactiveValueReadWrite v a m) => c -> v -> ReactiveFieldReadWrite m a Source #

Check condition and notify only when holds (but writing occurs regardless).

guardRO :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead c Bool m) => c -> ReactiveFieldRead m Bool Source #

Check RV carrying a Bool, and notify only when it changes and it is True.

guardRO' :: (Monad m, ReactiveValueRead c a m) => c -> (a -> Bool) -> ReactiveFieldRead m a Source #

Check RV and notify only when condition on the value holds.

(stops propagation by filtering on the new value).

# Activatable RVs

Activatable RVs are values that never hold any data, but whose change (or activation, or some sort of internal event) we need to be aware of).

class ReactiveValueActivatable m a where Source #

A class for things with a trivial field that carries unit. Buttons (in any GUI library), for instance, could be a member of this class.

Methods

A trivial type for Readable RVs that carry unit. They can be used for buttons, or events without data.

mkActivatable :: Monad m => (m () -> m ()) -> ReactiveFieldActivatable m Source #

Create an activatable RV from a handler installer.