{-# OPTIONS_GHC -Wall -fno-warn-orphans #-} {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts, FlexibleInstances, TypeFamilies #-} {-# LANGUAGE Safe #-} {- | Module : Physics.Learn.StateSpace Copyright : (c) Scott N. Walck 2014-2019 License : BSD3 (see LICENSE) Maintainer : Scott N. Walck <walck@lvc.edu> Stability : experimental A 'StateSpace' is an affine space where the associated vector space has scalars that are instances of 'Fractional'. If p is an instance of 'StateSpace', then the associated vectorspace 'Diff' p is intended to represent the space of (time) derivatives of paths in p. 'StateSpace' is very similar to Conal Elliott's 'AffineSpace'. -} module Physics.Learn.StateSpace ( StateSpace(..) , (.-^) , Time , DifferentialEquation , InitialValueProblem , EvolutionMethod , SolutionMethod , stepSolution , eulerMethod ) where import Data.AdditiveGroup ( AdditiveGroup(..) ) import Data.VectorSpace ( VectorSpace(..) ) import Physics.Learn.Position ( Position , shiftPosition , displacement ) import Physics.Learn.CarrotVec ( Vec , (^*) , (^-^) ) infixl 6 .+^, .-^ infix 6 .-. -- | An instance of 'StateSpace' is a data type that can serve as the state -- of some system. Alternatively, a 'StateSpace' is a collection of dependent -- variables for a differential equation. -- A 'StateSpace' has an associated vector space for the (time) derivatives -- of the state. The associated vector space is a linearized version of -- the 'StateSpace'. class (VectorSpace (Diff p), Fractional (Scalar (Diff p))) => StateSpace p where -- | Associated vector space type Diff p -- | Subtract points (.-.) :: p -> p -> Diff p -- | Point plus vector (.+^) :: p -> Diff p -> p -- | The scalars of the associated vector space can be thought of as time intervals. type Time p = Scalar (Diff p) -- | Point minus vector (.-^) :: StateSpace p => p -> Diff p -> p p .-^ v = p .+^ negateV v instance StateSpace Double where type Diff Double = Double (.-.) = (-) (.+^) = (+) instance StateSpace Vec where type Diff Vec = Vec (.-.) = (^-^) (.+^) = (^+^) -- | Position is not a vector, but displacement (difference in position) is a vector. instance StateSpace Position where type Diff Position = Vec (.-.) = flip displacement (.+^) = flip shiftPosition instance (StateSpace p, StateSpace q, Time p ~ Time q) => StateSpace (p,q) where type Diff (p,q) = (Diff p, Diff q) (p,q) .-. (p',q') = (p .-. p', q .-. q') (p,q) .+^ (u,v) = (p .+^ u, q .+^ v) instance (StateSpace p, StateSpace q, StateSpace r, Time p ~ Time q ,Time q ~ Time r) => StateSpace (p,q,r) where type Diff (p,q,r) = (Diff p, Diff q, Diff r) (p,q,r) .-. (p',q',r') = (p .-. p', q .-. q', r .-. r') (p,q,r) .+^ (u,v,w) = (p .+^ u, q .+^ v, r .+^ w) inf :: a -> [a] inf x = x : inf x instance AdditiveGroup v => AdditiveGroup [v] where zeroV = inf zeroV (^+^) = zipWith (^+^) negateV = map negateV instance VectorSpace v => VectorSpace [v] where type Scalar [v] = Scalar v c *^ xs = [c *^ x | x <- xs] instance StateSpace p => StateSpace [p] where type Diff [p] = [Diff p] (.-.) = zipWith (.-.) (.+^) = zipWith (.+^) -- | A differential equation expresses how the dependent variables (state) -- change with the independent variable (time). -- A differential equation is specified by giving the (time) derivative -- of the state as a function of the state. -- The (time) derivative of a state is an element of the associated vector space. type DifferentialEquation state = state -> Diff state -- | An initial value problem is a differential equation along with an initial state. type InitialValueProblem state = (DifferentialEquation state, state) -- | A (numerical) solution method is a way of converting -- an initial value problem into a list of states (a solution). -- The list of states need not be equally spaced in time. type SolutionMethod state = InitialValueProblem state -> [state] -- | An evolution method is a way of approximating the state -- after advancing a finite interval in the independent -- variable (time) from a given state. type EvolutionMethod state = DifferentialEquation state -- ^ differential equation -> Time state -- ^ time interval -> state -- ^ initial state -> state -- ^ evolved state -- | Given an evolution method and a time step, return the solution method -- which applies the evolution method repeatedly with with given time step. -- The solution method returned will produce an infinite list of states. stepSolution :: EvolutionMethod state -> Time state -> SolutionMethod state stepSolution ev dt (de, ic) = iterate (ev de dt) ic -- | The Euler method is the simplest evolution method. -- It increments the state by the derivative times the time step. eulerMethod :: StateSpace state => EvolutionMethod state eulerMethod de dt st = st .+^ de st ^* dt