lio- Labeled IO Information Flow Control Library

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A data type Labeled protects access to pure values (hence, we refer to values of type Label a as labeled values). The role of labeled values is to allow users to associate heterogeneous labels (see LIO.Label) with values. Although LIO's current label protects all values in scope with the current label, Labeled values allow for more fine grained protection. Moreover, trusted code may easily inspect Labeled values, for instance, when inserting values into a database.

Without the appropriate privileges, one cannot produce a pure unlabeled value that depends on a secret Labeled value, or conversely produce a high-integrity Labeled value based on pure data. This module exports functions for creating labeled values (label), using the values protected by Labeled by unlabeling them (unlabel), and changing the value of a labeled value without inspection (relabelLabeledP, taintLabeled, untaintLabeled). A Functor-like class (LabeledFunctor) on Labeled is also defined in this module.



data Labeled l t Source

Labeled l a is a value that associates a label of type l with a value of type a. Labeled values allow users to label data with a label other than the current label. In an embedded setting this is akin to having first class labeled values. Note that Labeled is an instance of LabelOf, which effectively means that the label of a Labeled value is usually just protected by the current label. (Of course if you have a nested labeled value then the label on the inner labeled value's label is the outer label.)


Typeable2 Labeled 
LabelOf Labeled

Returns label of a Labeled type.

(SLabel l, HandleOps Handle b IO) => HandleOps (LabeledHandle l) b (LIO l) 
(Label l, Read l, Read a) => ReadTCB (Labeled l a)

Trusted Read instance.

(Label l, Show a) => ShowTCB (Labeled l a)

Trusted Show instance.

Label values

label :: MonadLIO l m => l -> a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Function to construct a Labeled from a label and pure value. If the current label is lcurrent and the current clearance is ccurrent, then the label l specified must satisfy lcurrent `canFlowTo` l && l `canFlowTo` ccurrent. Otherwise an exception is thrown (see guardAlloc).

labelP :: (MonadLIO l m, Priv l p) => p -> l -> a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Constructs a Labeled using privilege to allow the Labeled's label to be below the current label. If the current label is lcurrent and the current clearance is ccurrent, then the privilege p and label l specified must satisfy canFlowTo p lcurrent l and l `canFlowTo` ccurrent. Note that privilege is not used to bypass the clearance. You must use setClearanceP to raise the clearance first if you wish to create an Labeled at a higher label than the current clearance.

Unlabel values

unlabel :: MonadLIO l m => Labeled l a -> m aSource

Within the LIO monad, this function takes a Labeled and returns the underlying value. Thus, in the LIO monad one can say:

 x <- unlabel (xv :: Labeled SomeLabelType Int)

And now it is possible to use the value of x :: Int, which is the pure value of what was stored in xv. Of course, unlabel also raises the current label. If raising the label would exceed the current clearance, then unlabel throws ClearanceViolation. However, you can use labelOf to check if unlabel will succeed without throwing an exception.

unlabelP :: (MonadLIO l m, Priv l p) => p -> Labeled l a -> m aSource

Extracts the value of an Labeled just like unlabel, but takes a privilege argument to minimize the amount the current label must be raised. Function will throw ClearanceViolation under the same circumstances as unlabel.

Relabel values

relabelLabeledP :: (MonadLIO l m, Priv l p) => p -> l -> Labeled l a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Relabels a Labeled value to the supplied label if the given privilege privileges permits it. It must be that the original label and new label are equal, modulo the supplied privileges. In other words the label remains in the same congruence class.

Consequently relabelP p l lv throws an InsufficientPrivs exception if

canFlowToP p l (labelOf lv) && canFlowToP p (labelOf lv) l

does not hold.

taintLabeled :: MonadLIO l m => l -> Labeled l a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Raises the label of a Labeled to the upperBound of it's current label and the value supplied. The label supplied must be bounded by the current label and clearance, though the resulting label may not be if the Labeled is already above the current thread's clearance. If the supplied label is not bounded then taintLabeled will throw an exception (see guardAlloc).

taintLabeledP :: (MonadLIO l m, Priv l p) => p -> l -> Labeled l a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Same as taintLabeled, but uses privileges when comparing the current label to the supplied label. In other words, this function can be used to lower the label of the labeled value by leveraging the supplied privileges.

untaintLabeled :: MonadLIO l m => l -> Labeled l a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Downgrades the label of a Labeled as much as possible given the current privilege.

untaintLabeledP :: (MonadLIO l m, Priv l p) => p -> l -> Labeled l a -> m (Labeled l a)Source

Same as untaintLabeled but uses the supplied privileges when downgrading the label of the labeled value.

Labeled functor

Making Labeled an instance of Functor is problematic because:

  1. fmap would have type Labeled l a -> (a -> b) -> Labeled b and thus creating new labeled values above the current clearance or below the current label would be feasible (given one such value). 2. LIO is polymorphic in the label type and thus fmap would is susceptible to refinement attacks. Superficially if the label type contains an integrity component (see for example LIO.DCLabel) then fmap ( -> 3) lv would produce a high-integrity labeled 3 if lv is a high-integrity labeled value without any any authority or endorsement.

As a result, we provide a class LabeledFunctor that export lFmap (labeled lFmap) that addressed the above issues. Firstly, each newly created value is in the LIO monad and secondly each label format implementation must produce their own definition of lFmap such that the end label protects the computation result accordingly.

class Label l => LabeledFunctor l whereSource

IFC-aware functor instance. Since certain label formats may contain integrity information, this is provided as a class rather than a function. Such label formats will likely wish to drop endorsements in the new labeled valued.


lFmap :: MonadLIO l m => Labeled l a -> (a -> b) -> m (Labeled l b)Source

fmap-like funciton that is aware of the current label and clearance.