Description

This module defines the ValidateT monad transformer and MonadValidate typeclass. As the names imply, they are intended to be used to write data validators, but they are general enough that you may find other uses for them, too. For an overview of this library’s functionality, see the documentation for ValidateT.

Synopsis

data ValidateT e m a Source #

ValidateT is a monad transformer for writing validations. Like ExceptT, ValidateT is primarily concerned with the production of errors, but it differs from ExceptT in that ValidateT is designed not to necessarily halt on the first error. Instead, it provides a mechanism for collecting many warnings or errors, ideally as many as possible, before failing. In that sense, ValidateT is also somewhat like WriterT, but it is not just a combination of ExceptT and WriterT. Specifically, it differs in the following two respects:

1. ValidateT automatically collects errors from all branches of an Applicative expression, making it possible to write code in the same style that one would use with ExceptT and automatically get additional information for free. (This is especially true when used in combination with the ApplicativeDo language extension.)
2. ValidateT provides error signaling operators, refute and dispute, which are similar to throwError and tell, respectively. However, both operators combine raised errors into a single value (using an arbitrary Semigroup), so the relative ordering of validation errors is properly respected. (Of course, if the order doesn’t matter to you, you can choose to accumulate errors into an unordered container.)

## An introduction to ValidateT

The first of the above two points is by far the most interesting feature of ValidateT. Let’s make it more concrete with an example:

>>> runValidate (refute ["bang"] *> refute ["boom"])
Left ["bang", "boom"]


At first blush, the above example may lead you to believe that refute is like tell from WriterT, but it is actually more like throwError. Consider its type:

refute :: MonadValidate e m => e -> m a


Note that, like throwError, refute is polymorphic in its return type, which is to say it never returns. Indeed, if we introduce a dependency on a computation that fails using refute via >>=, the downstream computation will not be run:

>>> let getString = refute ["bang"] *> pure "boom"
useString a = refute [a]
in runValidate (getString >>= useString)
Left ["bang"]


This works because although the Monad instance for ValidateT fails as soon as the first refute is executed (as it must due to the way the second argument of >>= depends on the result of its first argument), the Applicative instance runs all branches of <*> and combines the errors produced by all of them. When ApplicativeDo is enabled, this can lead to some “magical” looking error reporting where validation automatically continues on each sub-piece of a piece of data until it absolutely cannot proceed any further. As an example, this package’s test suite includes the following function:

validateQueryRequest :: (MonadReader Env m, MonadValidate [Error] m) => Value -> m QueryRequest
validateQueryRequest req = withObject "request" req $ o -> do qrAuth <- withKey o "auth_token" parseAuthToken ~(qrTable, info) <- withKey o "table" parseTableName qrQuery <- withKey o "query" parseQuery for_ info $ tableInfo -> pushPath "query" $ validateQuery qrTable tableInfo (atIsAdmin qrAuth) qrQuery pure QueryRequest { qrAuth, qrTable, qrQuery }  The above do block parses and validates some JSON, and it’s written as straight line code, but with ApplicativeDo enabled (along with the -foptimal-applicative-do option, which makes GHC try a little harder), it still produces errors for all parts of the input document at once: >>> flip runReader env . runValidateT $ validateQueryRequest [aesonQQ|
{ "auth_token": 123
, "table": { "name": "users" }
[ { "lit": "42" }
, { "select": "points" } ]}
}|]
Left [ Error ["auth_token"] (JSONBadValue "string" (Number 123))
, Error ["table"] (JSONMissingKey "schema")


The penultimate statement in the do block—the one with the call to validateQuery—depends on several of the bindings bound earlier in the same do block, namely qrAuth, info, and qrQuery. Because of that, validateQuery will not be executed so long as any of its dependencies fail. As soon as they all succeed, their results will be passed to validateQuery as usual, and validation will continue.

## The full details

Although ValidateT (with ApplicativeDo) may seem magical, of course, it is not. As alluded to above, ValidateT simply provides a <*> implementation that collects errors produced by both arguments rather than short-circuiting as soon as the first error is raised.

However, that explanation alone may raise some additional questions. What about the monad laws? When ValidateT is used in a monad transformer stack, what happens to side effects? And what are ValidateT’s performance characteristics? The remainder of this section discusses those topics.

### ValidateT and the Monad laws

ValidateT’s Applicative and Monad instances do not conform to a strict interpretation of the Monad laws, which dictate that <*> must be equivalent to ap. For ValidateT, this is not true if we consider “equivalent” to mean ==. However, if we accept a slightly weaker notion of equivalence, we can satisfy the laws. Specifically, we may use the definition that some Validate action a is equivalent to another action b iff

• if runValidate a produces Right x, then runValidate b must produce Right y where x == y (and == is the usual Haskell ==),
• and if runValidate a produces Left x, then runValidate b must produce Left y (but x and y may be unrelated).

In other words, our definition of equivalence is like ==, except that we make no guarantees about the contents of an error should one occur. However, we do guarantee that replacing <*> with ap or vice versa will never change an error to a success or a success to an error, nor will it change the value of a successful result in any way. To put it another way, ValidateT provides “best effort” error reporting: it will never return fewer errors than an equivalent use of ExceptT, but it might return more.

### Using ValidateT with other monad transformers

ValidateT is a valid, lawful, generally well-behaved monad transformer, and it is safe to use within a larger monad transformer stack. Instances for the most common mtl-style typeclasses are provided. However, be warned: many common monad transformers do not have sufficiently order-independent Applicative instances for ValidateT’s Applicative instance to actually collect errors from multiple branches of a computation.

To understand why that might be, consider that StateT must enforce a left-to-right evaluation order for <*> in order to thread the state through the computation. If the a action in an expression a <*> b fails, then it is simply not possible to run b since b may still depend on the state that would have been produced by a. Similarly, ExceptT enforces a left-to-right evaluation because it aborts a computation as soon as an error is thrown. Using ValidateT with these kinds of monad transformers will cause it to effectively degrade to WriterT over ExceptT since it will not be able to gather any errors produced by refute beyond the first one.

However, even that isn’t the whole story, since the relative order of monads in a monad transformer stack can affect things further. For example, while the StateT monad transformer enforces left-to-right evaluation order, it only does this for the monad underneath it, so although StateT s (ValidateT e) will not be able to collect multiple errors, ValidateT e (State s) will. Note, however, that those two types differ in other ways, too—running each to completion results in different types:

runState (runValidateT m) s :: (Either e a, s)
runValidate (runStateT m s) :: Either e (a, s)


That kind of difference is generally true when using monad transformers—the two combinations of ExceptT and StateT have the same types as above, for example—but because ValidateT needs to be on top of certain transformers for it to be useful, combining ValidateT with certain transformers may be of little practical use.

One way to identify which monad transformers are uncooperative in the aforementioned way is to look at the constraints included in the context of the transformer’s Applicative instance. Transformers like StateT have instances of the shape

instance Monad m => Applicative (StateT s m)


which notably require Monad instances just to implement Applicative! However, this is not always sufficient for distinguishing which functions or instances use <*> and which use >>=, especially since many older libraries (which predate Applicative) may include Monad contraints even when they only use features of Applicative. The only way to be certain is to examine the implementation (or conservatively write code that is explicitly restricted to Applicative).

(As it happens, ValidateT’s Applicative is actually one such “uncooperative” instance itself: it has a Monad constraint in its context. It is possible to write an implementation of ValidateT without that constraint, but its <*> would necessarily leak space in the same way WriterT’s >>= leaks space. If you have a reason to want the less efficient but more permissive variant, please let the author of this library know, as she would probably find it interesting.)

## Performance characteristics of ValidateT

Although the interface to ValidateT is minimal, there are surprisingly many different ways to implement it, each with its own set of performance tradeoffs. Here is a quick summary of the choices ValidateT makes:

1. ValidateT is strict in the set of errors it accumulates, which is to say it reduces them to weak head normal form (WHNF) via seq immediately upon any call to refute or dispute.
2. Furthermore, all of ValidateT’s operations, including <*>, operate in constant space. This means, for example, that evaluating sequence_ xs will consume constant space regardless of the size of xs, not counting any space consumed purely due to the relevant Foldable instance’s traversal of xs.
3. Finally, ValidateT accumulates errors in a left-associative manner, which is to say that any uses of refute or dispute combine the existing set of errors, e, with the added set of errors, e', via the expression e <> e'.

A good rule of thumb is that ValidateT has similar performance characteristics to foldl' (<>), while types like Validation from the either package tend to have similar performance characteristics to foldr (<>). That decision has both significant advantages and significant disadvantages; the following subsections elaborate further.

### <*> takes constant space

Great care has been taken in the implementation of <*> to ensure it does not leak space. Notably, the same cannot be said for many existing implementations of similar concepts. For example, you will find that executing the expression

let m () = pure () *> m () in m ()


may continuously allocate memory until it is exhausted for types such as Validation (from the either package), but ValidateT will execute it in constant space. This point may seem silly, since the above definition of m () will never do anything useful, anyway, but the same point also applies to operations like sequence_.

In practice, this issue matters far less for types like Validation than it does for ValidateT, as Validation and its cousins don’t have a Monad instance and do not generally experience the same usage patterns. (The additional laziness they are capable of can sometimes even avoid the space leak altogether.) However, it can be relevant more often for ValidateT, so this implementation makes choices to avoid the potential for the leak altogether.

### Errors are accumulated using strict, left-associated <>

A major consequence of the decision to both strictly accumulate state and maintain constant space is that ValidateT’s internal applications of <> to combine errors are naturally strict and left-associated, not lazy and right-associated like they are for types like Validation. If the number of errors your validation generates is small, this difference is irrelevant, but if it is large, the difference in association can prove disastrous if the Semigroup you choose to accumulate errors in is [a]!

To make it painfully explicit why using [a] can come back to bite you, consider that each time ValidateT executes refute e', given some existing collection of errors e, it (strictly) evalutes e <> e' to obtain a new collection of errors. Now consider the implications of that if e is a ten thousand element list: <> will have to traverse all ten thousand elements and reallocate a fresh cons cell for every single one in order to build the new list, even if just one element is being appended to the end! Unfortunately, the ubiquitous, built-in [a] type is clearly an exceptionally poor choice for this pattern of accumulation.

Fortunately, the solution is quite simple: use a different data structure. If order doesn’t matter, use a Set or HashSet. If it does, but either LIFO consumption of the data is okay or you are okay with paying to reverse the data once after collecting the errors, Dual [a] to accumulate elements in an efficient manner. If neither is true, use a data structure like Seq that provides an efficient implementation of a functional queue. You can always convert back to a plain list at the end once you’re done, if you have to.

Instances
 MonadBase b m => MonadBase b (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal MethodsliftBase :: b α -> ValidateT e m α # MonadBaseControl b m => MonadBaseControl b (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Associated Typestype StM (ValidateT e m) a :: Type # MethodsliftBaseWith :: (RunInBase (ValidateT e m) b -> b a) -> ValidateT e m a #restoreM :: StM (ValidateT e m) a -> ValidateT e m a # MonadWriter w m => MonadWriter w (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodswriter :: (a, w) -> ValidateT e m a #tell :: w -> ValidateT e m () #listen :: ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m (a, w) #pass :: ValidateT e m (a, w -> w) -> ValidateT e m a # MonadState s m => MonadState s (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodsget :: ValidateT e m s #put :: s -> ValidateT e m () #state :: (s -> (a, s)) -> ValidateT e m a # MonadReader r m => MonadReader r (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodsask :: ValidateT e m r #local :: (r -> r) -> ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m a #reader :: (r -> a) -> ValidateT e m a # MonadError e m => MonadError e (ValidateT a m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal MethodsthrowError :: e -> ValidateT a m a0 #catchError :: ValidateT a m a0 -> (e -> ValidateT a m a0) -> ValidateT a m a0 # (Monad m, Semigroup e) => MonadValidate e (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodsrefute :: e -> ValidateT e m a Source #dispute :: e -> ValidateT e m () Source #tolerate :: ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m (Maybe a) Source # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodslift :: Monad m => m a -> ValidateT e m a # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Associated Typestype StT (ValidateT e) a :: Type # MethodsliftWith :: Monad m => (Run (ValidateT e) -> m a) -> ValidateT e m a #restoreT :: Monad m => m (StT (ValidateT e) a) -> ValidateT e m a # Monad m => Monad (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methods(>>=) :: ValidateT e m a -> (a -> ValidateT e m b) -> ValidateT e m b #(>>) :: ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m b -> ValidateT e m b #return :: a -> ValidateT e m a #fail :: String -> ValidateT e m a # Functor m => Functor (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodsfmap :: (a -> b) -> ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m b #(<$) :: a -> ValidateT e m b -> ValidateT e m a # Monad m => Applicative (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodspure :: a -> ValidateT e m a #(<*>) :: ValidateT e m (a -> b) -> ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m b #liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m b -> ValidateT e m c #(*>) :: ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m b -> ValidateT e m b #(<*) :: ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m b -> ValidateT e m a # MonadIO m => MonadIO (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal MethodsliftIO :: IO a -> ValidateT e m a # MonadThrow m => MonadThrow (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal MethodsthrowM :: Exception e0 => e0 -> ValidateT e m a # MonadCatch m => MonadCatch (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodscatch :: Exception e0 => ValidateT e m a -> (e0 -> ValidateT e m a) -> ValidateT e m a # MonadMask m => MonadMask (ValidateT e m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal Methodsmask :: ((forall a. ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m a) -> ValidateT e m b) -> ValidateT e m b #uninterruptibleMask :: ((forall a. ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e m a) -> ValidateT e m b) -> ValidateT e m b #generalBracket :: ValidateT e m a -> (a -> ExitCase b -> ValidateT e m c) -> (a -> ValidateT e m b) -> ValidateT e m (b, c) # type StT (ValidateT e) a Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal type StT (ValidateT e) a = ValidateTState e a type StM (ValidateT e m) a Source # Instance detailsDefined in Control.Monad.Validate.Internal type StM (ValidateT e m) a = ComposeSt (ValidateT e) m a runValidateT :: forall e m a. Functor m => ValidateT e m a -> m (Either e a) Source # Runs a ValidateT computation, returning the errors raised by refute or dispute if any, otherwise returning the computation’s result. execValidateT :: forall e m a. (Monoid e, Functor m) => ValidateT e m a -> m e Source # Runs a ValidateT computation, returning the errors on failure or mempty on success. The computation’s result, if any, is discarded. >>> execValidate (refute ["bang"]) ["bang"] >>> execValidate @[] (pure 42) []  embedValidateT :: forall e m a. MonadValidate e m => ValidateT e m a -> m a Source # Runs a ValidateT transformer by interpreting it in an underlying transformer with a MonadValidate instance. That might seem like a strange thing to do, but it can be useful in combination with mapErrors to locally alter the error type in a larger ValidateT computation. For example: throwsIntegers :: MonadValidate [Integer] m => m () throwsIntegers = dispute [42] throwsBools :: MonadValidate [Bool] m => m () throwsBools = dispute [False] throwsBoth :: MonadValidate [Either Integer Bool] m => m () throwsBoth = do embedValidateT $ mapErrors (map Left) throwsIntegers
embedValidateT $ mapErrors (map Right) throwsBools >>> runValidate throwsBoth Left [Left 42, Right False]  Since: 1.1.0.0 mapErrors :: forall e e' m a. (Monad m, Semigroup e') => (e -> e') -> ValidateT e m a -> ValidateT e' m a Source # Applies a function to all validation errors produced by a ValidateT computation. >>> runValidate $ mapErrors (map show) (refute [11, 42])
Left ["11", "42"]


Since: 1.1.0.0

class (Monad m, Semigroup e) => MonadValidate e m | m -> e where Source #

The class of validation monads, intended to be used to validate data structures while collecting errors along the way. In a sense, MonadValidate is like a combination of MonadError and MonadWriter, but it isn’t entirely like either. The two essential differences are:

1. Unlike throwError, raising an error using refute does not always abort the entire computation—it may only abort a local part of it.
2. Unlike tell, raising an error using dispute still causes the computation to globally fail, it just doesn’t affect local execution.

For a more thorough explanation, with examples, see the documentation for ValidateT.

Minimal complete definition

Nothing

Methods

refute :: e -> m a Source #

Raises a fatal validation error. Aborts the current branch of the validation (i.e. does not return).

>>> runValidate (refute ["boom"] >> refute ["bang"])
Left ["boom"]


dispute :: e -> m () Source #

Raises a non-fatal validation error. The overall validation fails, and the error is recorded, but validation continues in an attempt to try and discover more errors.

>>> runValidate (dispute ["boom"] >> dispute ["bang"])
Left ["boom", "bang"]


tolerate :: m a -> m (Maybe a) Source #

tolerate m behaves like m, except that any fatal errors raised by refute are altered to non-fatal errors that return Nothing. This allows m’s result to be used for further validation if it succeeds without preventing further validation from occurring upon failure.

>>> runValidate (tolerate (refute ["boom"]) >> refute ["bang"])
Left ["boom", "bang"]


Since: 1.1.0.0

refute :: (MonadTrans t, MonadValidate e m', m ~ t m') => e -> m a Source #

Raises a fatal validation error. Aborts the current branch of the validation (i.e. does not return).

>>> runValidate (refute ["boom"] >> refute ["bang"])
Left ["boom"]


dispute :: (MonadTrans t, MonadValidate e m', m ~ t m') => e -> m () Source #

Raises a non-fatal validation error. The overall validation fails, and the error is recorded, but validation continues in an attempt to try and discover more errors.

>>> runValidate (dispute ["boom"] >> dispute ["bang"])
Left ["boom", "bang"]


tolerate :: (MonadTransControl t, MonadValidate e m', m ~ t m') => m a -> m (Maybe a) Source #

tolerate m behaves like m, except that any fatal errors raised by refute are altered to non-fatal errors that return Nothing. This allows m’s result to be used for further validation if it succeeds without preventing further validation from occurring upon failure.

>>> runValidate (tolerate (refute ["boom"]) >> refute ["bang"])
Left ["boom", "bang"]


Since: 1.1.0.0

Instances

ValidateT specialized to the Identity base monad. See ValidateT for usage information.
See runValidateT.
See execValidateT.