penny- Extensible double-entry accounting system

Safe HaskellNone




Penny - extensible double-entry accounting system


Building a custom Penny binary

Everything you need to create a custom Penny program is available by importing only this module.

data Version

A Version represents the version of a software entity.

An instance of Eq is provided, which implements exact equality modulo reordering of the tags in the versionTags field.

An instance of Ord is also provided, which gives lexicographic ordering on the versionBranch fields (i.e. 2.1 > 2.0, 1.2.3 > 1.2.2, etc.). This is expected to be sufficient for many uses, but note that you may need to use a more specific ordering for your versioning scheme. For example, some versioning schemes may include pre-releases which have tags "pre1", "pre2", and so on, and these would need to be taken into account when determining ordering. In some cases, date ordering may be more appropriate, so the application would have to look for date tags in the versionTags field and compare those. The bottom line is, don't always assume that compare and other Ord operations are the right thing for every Version.

Similarly, concrete representations of versions may differ. One possible concrete representation is provided (see showVersion and parseVersion), but depending on the application a different concrete representation may be more appropriate.




versionBranch :: [Int]

The numeric branch for this version. This reflects the fact that most software versions are tree-structured; there is a main trunk which is tagged with versions at various points (1,2,3...), and the first branch off the trunk after version 3 is 3.1, the second branch off the trunk after version 3 is 3.2, and so on. The tree can be branched arbitrarily, just by adding more digits.

We represent the branch as a list of Int, so version 3.2.1 becomes [3,2,1]. Lexicographic ordering (i.e. the default instance of Ord for [Int]) gives the natural ordering of branches.

versionTags :: [String]

A version can be tagged with an arbitrary list of strings. The interpretation of the list of tags is entirely dependent on the entity that this version applies to.

data Defaults Source

This type contains settings for all the reports, as well as default settings for the global options. Some of these can be overridden on the command line.




caseSensitive :: Bool

Whether the matcher is case sensitive by default

matcher :: Matcher

Which matcher to use

colorToFile :: Bool

Use colors when standard output is not a terminal?

expressionType :: ExprDesc

Use RPN or infix expressions? This affects both the posting filter and the filter for the Postings report.

defaultScheme :: Maybe Scheme

Default color scheme. If Nothing, there is no default color scheme. If there is no default color scheme and the user does not pick one on the command line, no colors will be used.

additionalSchemes :: [Scheme]

Additional color schemes the user can pick from on the command line.

sorter :: [(SortField, SortOrder)]

Postings are sorted in this order by default. For example, if the first pair is (Date, Ascending), then postings are first sorted by date in ascending order. If the second pair is (Payee, Ascending), then postings with the same date are then sorted by payee.

If this list is empty, then by default postings are left in the same order as they appear in the ledger files.

formatQty :: FormatQty

How to format quantities. This affects only quantities that are not parsed from the ledger. Examples include calculated totals and inferred quantities. Affects all reports.

balanceShowZeroBalances :: Bool

Show zero balances in the balance report? If True, show them; if False, hide them.

balanceOrder :: SortOrder

Whether to sort the accounts in ascending or descending order by account name in the balance report.

convertShowZeroBalances :: Bool

Show zero balances in the convert report? If True, show them; if False, hide them.

convertTarget :: Target

The commodity to which to convert the commodities in the convert report.

convertOrder :: SortOrder

Sort the convert report in ascending or descending order.

convertSortBy :: SortBy

Sort by account or by quantity in the convert report.

postingsFields :: Fields Bool

Fields to show by default in the postings report.

postingsWidth :: Int

The postings report is roughly this wide by default. Typically this will be as wide as your terminal.

postingsShowZeroBalances :: Bool

Show zero balances in the postings report? If True, show them; if False, hide them.

postingsDateFormat :: (PostMeta, Posting) -> Text

How to format dates in the postings report.

postingsSubAccountLength :: Int

Account names in the postings report are shortened if necessary in order to help the report fit within the allotted width (see postingsWidth). Account names are only shortened as much as is necessary for them to fit; however, each sub-account name will not be shortened any more than the amount given here.

postingsPayeeAllocation :: Int

postingsPayeeAllocation and postingsAccountAllocation determine how much space is allotted to the payee and account fields in the postings report. These fields are variable width. After space for most other fields is allotted, space is allotted for these two fields. The two fields divide the space proportionally depending on postingsPayeeAllocation and postingsAccountAllocation. For example, if postingsPayeeAllocation is 60 and postingsAccountAllocation is 40, then the payee field gets 60 percent of the leftover space and the account field gets 40 percent of the leftover space.

Both postingsPayeeAllocation and postingsAccountAllocation must be positive integers; if either one is less than 1, your program will crash at runtime.

postingsAccountAllocation :: Int

See postingsPayeeAllocation above for an explanation

postingsSpacers :: Spacers Int

Determines the number of spaces that appears to the right of each named field; for example, sPayee indicates how many spaces will appear to the right of the payee field. Each field of the Spacers should be a non-negative integer (although currently the absolute value of the field is taken.)

data Matcher Source




Color schemes

data Scheme Source




name :: String

The name of this scheme. How it will be identified on the command line.

description :: String

A brief (one-line) description of what this scheme is, such as for dark background terminals

changers :: Changers

data Labels a Source




debit :: a
credit :: a
zero :: a
other :: a


Show a => Show (Labels a) 

data EvenAndOdd a Source




eoEven :: a
eoOdd :: a


Show a => Show (EvenAndOdd a) 


Expression type

data ExprDesc

Is this an infix or RPN expression?




Convert report options

data Target Source

The commodity to which to convert the commodities in the convert report.



Selects a target commodity automatically, based on which commodity is the most common target commodity in the prices in your ledger files. If there is a tie for most common target commodity, the target that appears later in your ledger files is used.

ManualTarget String

Always uses the commodity named by the string given.


data SortBy Source




Postings report options

data Fields a Source




fGlobalTransaction :: a
fRevGlobalTransaction :: a
fGlobalPosting :: a
fRevGlobalPosting :: a
fFileTransaction :: a
fRevFileTransaction :: a
fFilePosting :: a
fRevFilePosting :: a
fFiltered :: a
fRevFiltered :: a
fSorted :: a
fRevSorted :: a
fVisible :: a
fRevVisible :: a
fLineNum :: a
fDate :: a
fFlag :: a
fNumber :: a
fPayee :: a
fAccount :: a
fPostingDrCr :: a
fPostingCmdty :: a
fPostingQty :: a
fTotalDrCr :: a
fTotalCmdty :: a
fTotalQty :: a
fTags :: a
fMemo :: a
fFilename :: a


Eq a => Eq (Fields a) 
Show a => Show (Fields a) 

data Spacers a Source




Eq a => Eq (Spacers a) 
Show a => Show (Spacers a) 

widthFromRuntime :: Runtime -> IntSource

Gets the current screen width from the runtime. If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set, uses 80.

yearMonthDay :: (PostMeta, Posting) -> TextSource

Shows the date of a posting in YYYY-MM-DD format.

Formatting quantities

data S3 a b c Source


S3a a 
S3b b 
S3c c 


(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c) => Eq (S3 a b c) 
(Ord a, Ord b, Ord c) => Ord (S3 a b c) 
(Show a, Show b, Show c) => Show (S3 a b c) 

type FormatQtySource


 = [LedgerItem]

All parsed items

-> Amount Qty 
-> Text 

A function used to format quantities.



:: S3 Radix PeriodGrp CommaGrp

What to do if no radix or grouping information can be determined from the ledger. Pass Radix if you want to use a radix point but no grouping; a PeriodGrp if you want to use a period for a radix point and the given grouping character, or a CommaGrp if you want to use a comma for a radix point and the given grouping character.

-> FormatQty 

Provides a function to use in the formatQty field. This formats quantities that were not parsed in the ledger. It first consults a list of all items that were parsed from the ledger. It examines these items to determine if another item with the same commodity already exists in the ledger.

If other items with the same commodity exist in the ledger, the radix point most frequently occurring amongst those items is used. If at least one of these items (with this radix point) also has grouped digits, then the quantity will be formatted with grouped digits; otherwise, no digit grouping is performed. If digit grouping is performed, it is done according to the following rules:

  • only digits to the left of the radix point are grouped
  • grouping is performed only if the number has at least five digits. Therefore, 1234 is not grouped, but 1,234.5 is grouped, as is 12,345
  • the character most frequently appearing as a grouping character (for this particular commodity and radix point) is used to perform grouping
  • digits are grouped into groups of 3 digits

If a radix point cannot be determined from the quantities for a given commodity, then the radix point appearing most frequently for all commodities is used. If it's impossible to determine a radix point from all commodities, then the given default radix point and digit grouping (if desired) is used.

This function builds a map internally which holds all the formatting information; it might be expensive to build, so the function is written to be partially applied.



:: S3 Radix PeriodGrp CommaGrp

What to do if no radix or grouping information can be determined from the ledger. Pass Radix if you want to use a radix point but no grouping; a PeriodGrp if you want to use a period for a radix point and the given grouping character, or a CommaGrp if you want to use a comma for a radix point and the given grouping character.

-> [LedgerItem] 
-> Amount Qty 
-> S3 Radix PeriodGrp CommaGrp 

Obtains radix and grouping information for a particular commodity and quantity, but does not actually perform the formatting.

data Radix Source



data PeriodGrp Source

The digit grouping character when the radix is a period.



ASCII space


Unicode code point 0x2009



data CommaGrp Source

The digit grouping character when the radix is a comma.



ASCII space


Unicode code point 0x2009




data Runtime Source

Information about the runtime environment.


data Text

A space efficient, packed, unboxed Unicode text type.

pack :: String -> Text

O(n) Convert a String into a Text. Subject to fusion. Performs replacement on invalid scalar values.

Main function



:: Version

Version of the executable

-> (Runtime -> Defaults)

runPenny will apply this function to the Runtime. This way the defaults you use can vary depending on environment variables, the terminal type, the date, etc.

-> IO () 

Creates an IO action that you can use for the main function.

Developer overview

Penny is organized into a tree of modules, each with a name. Check out the links for details on each component of Penny.

Penny.Brenner - Penny financial institution transaction handling. Depends on Lincoln and Copper.

Penny.Cabin - Penny reports. Depends on Lincoln and Liberty.

Penny.Copper - the Penny parser. Depends on Lincoln.

Penny.Liberty - Penny command line parser helpers. Depends on Lincoln and Copper.

Penny.Lincoln - the Penny core. Depends on no other Penny components.

Penny.Shield - the Penny runtime environment. Depends on Lincoln.

Penny.Steel - independent utilities. Depends on no other Penny components.

Penny.Wheat - tools to use with Penny.Steel.Prednote. Depends on Steel, Lincoln, and Copper.

Penny.Zinc - the Penny command-line interface. Depends on Cabin, Copper, Liberty, and Lincoln.

The dependencies are represented as a dot file in in the Penny git repository.