persistent- Type-safe, multi-backend data serialization.
Safe HaskellNone



This module provides the tools for defining your database schema and using it to generate Haskell data types and migrations.


Parse entity defs

persistWith :: PersistSettings -> QuasiQuoter Source #

Converts a quasi-quoted syntax into a list of entity definitions, to be used as input to the template haskell generation code (mkPersist).

persistFileWith :: PersistSettings -> FilePath -> Q Exp Source #

Same as persistWith, but uses an external file instead of a quasiquotation. The recommended file extension is .persistentmodels.

persistManyFileWith :: PersistSettings -> [FilePath] -> Q Exp Source #

Same as persistFileWith, but uses several external files instead of one. Splitting your Persistent definitions into multiple modules can potentially dramatically speed up compile times.

The recommended file extension is .persistentmodels.



Split your Persistent definitions into multiple files (models1, models2), then create a new module for each new file and run mkPersist there:

-- Model1.hs
    [mkPersist sqlSettings]
    $(persistFileWith lowerCaseSettings "models1")
-- Model2.hs
    [mkPersist sqlSettings]
    $(persistFileWith lowerCaseSettings "models2")

Use persistManyFileWith to create your migrations:

-- Migrate.hs
    [mkMigrate "migrateAll"]
    $(persistManyFileWith lowerCaseSettings ["models1.persistentmodels","models2.persistentmodels"])

Tip: To get the same import behavior as if you were declaring all your models in one file, import your new files as Name into another file, then export module Name.

This approach may be used in the future to reduce memory usage during compilation, but so far we've only seen mild reductions.

See persistent#778 and persistent#791 for more details.

Since: 2.5.4

Turn EntityDefs into types

mkPersist :: MkPersistSettings -> [UnboundEntityDef] -> Q [Dec] Source #

Create data types and appropriate PersistEntity instances for the given EntityDefs. Works well with the persist quasi-quoter.

mkPersistWith :: MkPersistSettings -> [EntityDef] -> [UnboundEntityDef] -> Q [Dec] Source #

Like '


data MkPersistSettings Source #

Settings to be passed to the mkPersist function.

mpsBackend :: MkPersistSettings -> Type Source #

Which database backend we're using. This type is used for the PersistEntityBackend associated type in the entities that are generated.

If the mpsGeneric value is set to True, then this type is used for the non-Generic type alias. The data and type will be named:

data ModelGeneric backend = Model { ... }

And, for convenience's sake, we provide a type alias:

type Model = ModelGeneric $(the type you give here)

mpsGeneric :: MkPersistSettings -> Bool Source #

Deprecated: The mpsGeneric function adds a considerable amount of overhead and complexity to the library without bringing significant benefit. We would like to remove it. If you require this feature, please comment on the linked GitHub issue, and we'll either keep it around, or we can figure out a nicer way to solve your problem. Github:

Create generic types that can be used with multiple backends. Good for reusable code, but makes error messages harder to understand. Default: False.

mpsPrefixFields :: MkPersistSettings -> Bool Source #

Prefix field names with the model name. Default: True.

Note: this field is deprecated. Use the mpsFieldLabelModifier and mpsConstraintLabelModifier instead.

mpsFieldLabelModifier :: MkPersistSettings -> Text -> Text -> Text Source #

Customise the field accessors and lens names using the entity and field name. Both arguments are upper cased.

Default: appends entity and field.

Note: this setting is ignored if mpsPrefixFields is set to False.


mpsConstraintLabelModifier :: MkPersistSettings -> Text -> Text -> Text Source #

Customise the Constraint names using the entity and field name. The result should be a valid haskell type (start with an upper cased letter).

Default: appends entity and field

Note: this setting is ignored if mpsPrefixFields is set to False.


mpsEntityJSON :: MkPersistSettings -> Maybe EntityJSON Source #

Generate ToJSON/FromJSON instances for each model types. If it's Nothing, no instances will be generated. Default:

 Just EntityJSON
     { entityToJSON = 'entityIdToJSON
     , entityFromJSON = 'entityIdFromJSON

mpsGenerateLenses :: MkPersistSettings -> Bool Source #

Instead of generating normal field accessors, generator lens-style accessors.

Default: False

Since: 1.3.1

mpsDeriveInstances :: MkPersistSettings -> [Name] Source #

Automatically derive these typeclass instances for all record and key types.

Default: []

Since: 2.8.1

data EntityJSON Source #




mkPersistSettings Source #


:: Type

Value for mpsBackend

-> MkPersistSettings 

Create an MkPersistSettings with default values.

sqlSettings :: MkPersistSettings Source #

Use the SqlPersist backend.

Implicit ID Columns

data ImplicitIdDef Source #

A specification for how the implied ID columns are created.

By default, persistent will give each table a default column named id (customizable by PersistSettings), and the column type will be whatever you'd expect from BackendKey yourBackendType. For The SqlBackend type, this is an auto incrementing integer primary key.

You might want to give a different example. A common use case in postgresql is to use the UUID type, and automatically generate them using a SQL function.

Previously, you'd need to add a custom Id annotation for each model.

    Id   UUID default="uuid_generate_v1mc()"
    name Text

    Id   UUID default="uuid_generate_v1mc()"
    name Text
    user UserId

Now, you can simply create an ImplicitIdDef that corresponds to this declaration.

newtype UUID = UUID ByteString

instance PersistField UUID where
    toPersistValue (UUID bs) =
        PersistLiteral_ Escaped bs
    fromPersistValue pv =
        case pv of
            PersistLiteral_ Escaped bs ->
                Right (UUID bs)
            _ ->
                Left "nope"

instance PersistFieldSql UUID where
    sqlType _ = SqlOther UUID

With this instance at the ready, we can now create our implicit definition:

uuidDef :: ImplicitIdDef
uuidDef = mkImplicitIdDef @UUID "uuid_generate_v1mc()"

And we can use setImplicitIdDef to use this with the MkPersistSettings for our block.

mkPersist (setImplicitIdDef uuidDef sqlSettings) [persistLowerCase| ... |]

TODO: either explain interaction with mkMigrate or fix it. see issue #1249 for more details.


Various other TH functions

mkMigrate :: String -> [UnboundEntityDef] -> Q [Dec] Source #

Creates a single function to perform all migrations for the entities defined here. One thing to be aware of is dependencies: if you have entities with foreign references, make sure to place those definitions after the entities they reference.

In persistent-, this was changed to *ignore* the input entity def list, and instead defer to mkEntityDefList to get the correct entities. This avoids problems where the QuasiQuoter is unable to know what the right reference types are. This sets mkPersist to be the "single source of truth" for entity definitions.

migrateModels :: [EntityDef] -> Migration Source #

The basic function for migrating models, no Template Haskell required.

It's probably best to use this in concert with mkEntityDefList, and then call migrateModels with the result from that function.

share [mkPersist sqlSettings, mkEntityDefList "entities"] [persistLowerCase| ... |]

migrateAll = migrateModels entities

The function mkMigrate currently implements exactly this behavior now. If you're splitting up the entity definitions into separate files, then it is better to use the entity definition list and the concatenate all the models together into a big list to call with migrateModels.

module Foo where

    share [mkPersist s, mkEntityDefList "fooModels"] ...

module Bar where

    share [mkPersist s, mkEntityDefList "barModels"] ...

module Migration where

    import Foo
    import Bar

    migrateAll = migrateModels (fooModels <> barModels)


mkSave :: String -> [EntityDef] -> Q [Dec] Source #

Deprecated: This function is broken. mkEntityDefList is a drop-in replacement that will properly handle foreign keys correctly.

Save the EntityDefs passed in under the given name.

This function was deprecated in persistent- It doesn't properly fix foreign keys. Please refer to mkEntityDefList for a replacement.

mkDeleteCascade :: MkPersistSettings -> [UnboundEntityDef] -> Q [Dec] Source #

Deprecated: You can now set update and delete cascade behavior directly on the entity in the quasiquoter. This function and class are deprecated and will be removed in the next major ersion.

Generate a DeleteCascade instance for the given EntityDefs.

This function is deprecated as of You can now set cascade behavior directly in the quasiquoter.

mkEntityDefList Source #


:: String

The name that will be given to the EntityDef list.

-> [UnboundEntityDef] 
-> Q [Dec] 

Creates a declaration for the [EntityDef] from the persistent schema. This is necessary because the Persistent QuasiQuoter is unable to know the correct type of ID fields, and assumes that they are all Int64.

Provide this in the list you give to share, much like mkMigrate.

share [mkMigrate "migrateAll", mkEntityDefList "entityDefs"] [...]

Since: 2.7.1

share :: [[a] -> Q [Dec]] -> [a] -> Q [Dec] Source #

Apply the given list of functions to the same EntityDefs.

This function is useful for cases such as:

>>> share [mkSave "myDefs", mkPersist sqlSettings] [persistLowerCase|...|]

derivePersistField :: String -> Q [Dec] Source #

Automatically creates a valid PersistField instance for any datatype that has valid Show and Read instances. Can be very convenient for Enum types.

derivePersistFieldJSON :: String -> Q [Dec] Source #

Automatically creates a valid PersistField instance for any datatype that has valid ToJSON and FromJSON instances. For a datatype T it generates instances similar to these:

   instance PersistField T where
       toPersistValue = PersistByteString . L.toStrict . encode
       fromPersistValue = (left T.pack) . eitherDecodeStrict' <=< fromPersistValue
   instance PersistFieldSql T where
       sqlType _ = SqlString

persistFieldFromEntity :: MkPersistSettings -> UnboundEntityDef -> Q [Dec] Source #

Produce code similar to the following:

  instance PersistEntity e => PersistField e where
     toPersistValue = entityToPersistValueHelper
     fromPersistValue = entityFromPersistValueHelper ["col1", "col2"]
     sqlType _ = SqlString


lensPTH :: (s -> a) -> (s -> b -> t) -> Lens s t a b Source #

parseReferences :: PersistSettings -> Text -> Q Exp Source #

Calls parse to Quasi.parse individual entities in isolation afterwards, sets references to other entities

In, this was changed to splice in [UnboundEntityDef] instead of [EntityDef].

Since: 2.5.3

embedEntityDefs Source #


:: [EntityDef]

A list of EntityDef that have been defined in a previous mkPersist call.


-> [UnboundEntityDef] 
-> [UnboundEntityDef] 

Takes a list of (potentially) independently defined entities and properly links all foreign keys to reference the right EntityDef, tying the knot between entities.

Allows users to define entities indepedently or in separate modules and then fix the cross-references between them at runtime to create a Migration.

Since: 2.7.2

fieldError :: Text -> Text -> Text -> Text Source #

Render an error message based on the tableName and fieldName with the provided message.

Since: 2.8.2

class PersistEntity record => AtLeastOneUniqueKey record where Source #

This class is used to ensure that functions requring at least one unique key are not called with records that have 0 unique keys. The quasiquoter automatically writes working instances for appropriate entities, and generates TypeError instances for records that have 0 unique keys.

Since: 2.10.0


requireUniquesP :: record -> NonEmpty (Unique record) Source #

class PersistEntity record => OnlyOneUniqueKey record where Source #

This class is used to ensure that upsert is only called on records that have a single Unique key. The quasiquoter automatically generates working instances for appropriate records, and generates TypeError instances for records that have 0 or multiple unique keys.

Since: 2.10.0


onlyUniqueP :: record -> Unique record Source #

pkNewtype :: MkPersistSettings -> UnboundEntityDef -> Bool Source #

Returns True if the key definition has less than 2 fields.