plucky-0.0.0.1: A library and technique for handling errors via plucking constraints

Data.Either.Plucky

Description

In Plucking Constraints, I described a technique where you can collect constraints and then pluck them off one-by-one. In order to pluck them off, you need a type class and a datatype that supports concretely matching one of the constraints and delegating the rest of them.

I hint that errors can be handled in this way, and this library demonstrates the technique. I do not make any guarantee of prodution-readiness or maintainability, and indeed this technique does not work with mtl's MonadError, due to the functional dependency. So this is primarily useful in a concrete ExceptT monad or with Either directly.

Synopsis

# Throwing Errors

throw :: ProjectError e' e => e -> Either e' x Source #

Use this to throw an error in Either and also promote it into some big polymorphic type.

three
:: (OneOf e [A, B, C])
=> Either e String
three = do
throw A
throw B
throw C
pure "hello, world"


For ExceptT, see the variant throwT.

Since: 0.0.0.0

rethrow :: e -> Either e a Source #

When you're pattern matching on an unknown error, and you don't know how to handle it, you'll probably want to rethrow it.

handlingThree =
catch three $\error -> case error of Left A -> pure "It was an A." Right other -> rethrow other  In practice, you'll probably be using catchOne, and this won't be necessary. Since: 0.0.0.0 throwT :: (Monad m, ProjectError e' e) => e -> ExceptT e' m a Source # Like throw, but promoted to the ExceptT monad transformer. Since: 0.0.0.0 # Catching Errors catch :: Either a b -> (a -> Either a' b) -> Either a' b Source # This function can be used to handle the entirety of the error cases. Using this will require that you pattern match on the error, which can allow you to handle multiple cases. Note that each different error case will live in a different "level" of the Either that it's contained in. So you'll need to nest the pattern matching. To give an example, let's consider the case presented in catchOne - a function that throws three errors. data A = A three :: (OneOf error [A, B, C]) => Either error String  We can handle the possibility of A and B at the same time: handlingTwoErrors :: OneOf error [C] => Either error String handlingTwoErrors = catch three$ \ error -> case error of
Left A ->
pure "It's an A"
Right (Left B) ->
pure "It's a B"
Right (Right other) ->
rethrow other


You will probably have an easier time using catchOne sequentially, which would look like this:

handlingTwoErrors :: OneOf error [C] => Either error String
handlingTwoErrors =
catchOne
(catchOne three $\A -> pure "It's an A")$ \B -> pure "It's a B!"


TODO: Should this be the function that catch refers to? Or should catchOne be the guided case, and this is catchAll?

Since: 0.0.0.0

catchOne :: Either (Either a b) c -> (a -> Either b c) -> Either b c Source #

This function is useful to handle a single exception type among many. You pick which error you're going to handle by the handler function's input, and it magically rearranges everything else to 'just work' for you.

Let's say we have a program that throws three errors:

data A = A

three :: (OneOf error [A, B, C]) => Either error String


At this point in our program logic, we can handle an A just fine, but we don't know how to deal with a B or a C just yet. So we'll use catchOne, and in the handler function, we'll pattern match on A.

handleThree :: (OneOf error [B, C]) => Either error String
handleThree =
catchOne three $\A -> pure "It was an A!"  If you want to rethrow the error with a different kind of exception, you can totally do that too. data Z = Z aToZ :: (OneOf error [B, C, Z]) => Either error String aToZ = catchOne three$ \A -> throw Z


Since: 0.0.0.0

catchT :: Monad m => ExceptT e m a -> (e -> ExceptT e' m a) -> ExceptT e' m a Source #

Like catch, but promoted to the ExceptT monad transformer.

Since: 0.0.0.0

catchOneT :: Monad m => ExceptT (Either e e') m a -> (e -> ExceptT e' m a) -> ExceptT e' m a Source #

Like catchOne, but promoted to the ExceptT monad transformer.

Since: 0.0.0.1

# Concise Type Signature Helper

type family OneOf a as :: Constraint where ... Source #

It's often annoying to write a bunch of ProjectError annotations. Consider the three example:

three
:: (ProjectError e A, ProjectError e B, ProjectError e C)
=> Either e String
three = do
Left (putError A)
Left (putError B)
Left (putError C)
pure "hello, world"


That constraint is so annoying and repetitive. So instead this is defined to allow you to write:

three :: OneOf e [A, B, C] => Either e String


Since: 0.0.0.0

Equations

 OneOf a (x ': xs) = (ProjectError a x, OneOf a xs) OneOf a '[] = ()

# The magical internal guts!

This type class has several instances that are well-documented and describe how the library works and why. If you're curious about the way this library works, read this up.

class ProjectError large single where Source #

This type class is used to create the delegated values. It's an internal implementation detail, and you should not write any instances of it.

The real meat is in the instance documentation, so make sure you check that out.

TODO: rename this class

Since: 0.0.0.0

Methods

putError :: single -> large Source #

The type class has a single function which is used to shove a single value into a large value that contains it somehow. We use this to tell GHC how to organize our Eithers so that everything magically works out.

Since: 0.0.0.0

Instances
 (TypeError (Text "No (remind me to write a better error message)") :: Constraint) => ProjectError a b Source # Finally, we have an "error" instance. This one is here to blow up in the event that you try to trick GHC into thinking you've handled all the possible errors, when you've only really handled one. You shouldn't see this.Since: 0.0.0.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.Either.Plucky MethodsputError :: b -> a Source # ProjectError a a Source # This instance is the most base of base cases. A value may just be itself! This case can trigger whenever you only have a single constraint on a type. Let's consider the following code:data X = X value :: (ProjectError a X) => Either a () value = Left (putError X) There's only a single constraint on the error type. If we want to, we can write a specialized version of value that picks the large type to be equal to the single thing it contains.value' :: Either X () value' = value Now, there's no weird polymorphism or type variables, and we can just pattern match directly on the value. However, we can skip the manual specializing of the type, and pattern match directly on the value:main :: IO () main = do case value of Left X -> print "it was an X" Right () -> pure () Since: 0.0.0.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.Either.Plucky MethodsputError :: a -> a Source # ProjectError b c => ProjectError (Either a b) c Source # This is the "recursive case" in our plucking experiment. If you have a single value, and it's not in the Left side of the Either, but it *can* be extracted from the Right of an Either, then we recurse: we call putError and stuff it in the right hand side.Let's review the example from above, three.three :: (ProjectError e A, ProjectError e B, ProjectError e C) => Either e String three = do Left (putError A) Left (putError B) Left (putError C) pure "hello, world" How does this exactly work out? Well, let's pick the A type to pull out first.three :: (ProjectError e B, ProjectError e C) => Either (Either A e) String three = do Left (putError A) Left (putError B) Left (putError C) pure "hello, world" The "terminating" instance (instance ProjectError (Either a b) a) is the one that comes into play here. We can hand-specialize the implementation by copying in the definition of putError for that type:three :: (ProjectError e B, ProjectError e C) => Either (Either A e) String three = do Left (Left A) Left (putError B) Left (putError C) pure "hello, world" Neat! Now, we can also partially specialize the B and C cases to this instance:three :: (ProjectError e B, ProjectError e C) => Either (Either A e) String three = do Left (Left A) Left (Right (putError B)) Left (Right (putError C)) pure "hello, world" We can specialize the type of e again, this time plucking out the C constraint.three :: (ProjectError e B) => Either (Either A (Either C e)) String I specifically chose C because *ordering does not matter* and this is cool. So now we can specialize our implementation again. Let's zoom in on the C case: putError C :: Either C x This specializes to Left, so we can plug that in: Left (Right (Left C)) (if you feel tempted to march, please take a small break from reading these documentations).Likewise, we can further specialize the putError B to make the type class magic explicit. Because we're delegating into the final type parameter, we're using the recursive instance, which is Right . putError: Left (Right (Right (putError B))) Stitching that all together, we get:three :: (ProjectError e B) => Either (Either A (Either C e)) String three = do Left (Left A) Left (Right (Right (putError B))) Left (Right (Left C)) pure "hello, world" There's one final expansion we can do here. Because there is only a single constraint remaining, we can use the "identity" base case. In that case, putError = id, so we can finish off the polymorphic type class magic:three :: Either (Either A (Either C B)) String three = do Left (Left A) Left (Right (Right B)) Left (Right (Left C)) pure "hello, world" As with every other example, all of this "unwinding" is totally unnecessary for you, the library user, to ever do. You can pattern match directly on the totally polymorphic type to match on exceptions, and the errors you match on determine how GHC constructs the values for you.In practice, you'll use other functions to manipulate these exceptions.Since: 0.0.0.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.Either.Plucky MethodsputError :: c -> Either a b Source # ProjectError (Either a b) a Source # This is another terminating case in ProjectError. If we are asking for the Left in our type, then we can stop recursion and return the Left. Let's consider a value with three constraints on it:data A = A data B = B data C = C three :: (ProjectError e A, ProjectError e B, ProjectError e C) => Either e String three = do Left (putError A) Left (putError B) Left (putError C) pure "hello, world" This is pretty silly, sure! But if you have a function which can throw multiple error types, this is what you'll end up with. Let's suppose you know how to handle the error B, but no others. You want this to show up in the types of your functions - no more Bs, but everything else is still on the loose! First, we'll specialize the type very slightly:three' :: (ProjectError e A, ProjectError e C) => Either (Either B e) String three' = three Now, we can pattern match directly on the B in the Left. Just like with the base case, we can skip manually providing the specializing type signature:main :: IO () main = do case three of Left err -> case err of Left B -> print "It was B." Right other -> error "wasn't B!" Right msg -> putStrLn msg This pattern is a little boring, and we'll introduce some helper functions to match and fix it directly.Since: 0.0.0.0 Instance detailsDefined in Data.Either.Plucky MethodsputError :: a -> Either a b Source #