primitive-containers-0.4.1: containers backed by arrays

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This module only exists for documentation. It should never be imported.

The interval maps provided by the submodules of Interval coallesce overlapping intervals. Their behavior differs from that of the type from the IntervalMap package. The interval map from that package preserves all the original interval that were used as keys for the map. The interval map from this package creates a new interval from the overlap, combining the values.

There are several points in the design space to explore with this kind of interval map. A motivation for some of these variants is having Eq instances that satisfy a bidirectional variant of the substition law. That is:

∀ x y. (x == y ↔ ∀ f. f x == f y)

Here are the different design choices that we face:

  • Discrete (D) vs Continuous (C): The basically comes down to whether or not there is an Enum instance for the type. Although it cannot be enforced by the type system, continuous-keyed maps should not use discrete types as keys. The bidirectional substituion law is not upheld in this case. The discrete-keyed interval map uses succ and pred to coalesce adjacent intervals. The continuous-keyed interval map, assuming that unequal values have infinitely many values between them, only considers merging adjacent intervals when an open interval butts up against a closed interval with a matching key.
  • Bounded (B) vs Unbounded (U): Is there a Bounded instance for the type? Bounded types can treat maxBound as infinity. Unbounded types like Integer and Text have no value for infinity. If the key type has a Bounded instance, it is incorrect to use it in an unbounded interval map since the Eq instance will not satisfy the bidirectional substitution law.
  • Partial (P) vs Total (T): Is there a value corresponding to every key? The decides whether or not the return value of lookup is wrapped in a Maybe. Total maps with unconstrained values also have an Applicative instance. The internal representation of total maps is also more efficient than that of partial maps since we only need to store the upper bound of each interval.
  • Coalesce (S) vs Detach (H): The names here a little here are a little misleading. The strict variant uses on an Eq instance for values to coallesce adjacent ranges. For example, with discrete integers, the interval-value pairs ([4,6],12) and ([7,9],12) can be coallesced because 6 is adjacent to 7 and both pairs share value 12. Coalescing in this way is crucial to satisfying the bidirectional substitution law. It also induces value-strictness. Some users may prefer laziness in the values. This is also offered, but none of the value-lazy interval maps have Eq instances since it is not possible to satisfy the bidirectional substitution law without forcing the values.

The modules are named using acronyms that refer to various combinations of these flavors. For exmaple, DUTS provides the discrete unbounded total strict interval map. Some combinations are not provided because the author is unaware of useful types that meet the restrictions (for example, pairing continuous and bounded seems dubious).

For users who want to use Double as the key type, it is recommended that CUxx be used since the Enum instance for Double is dubious.