Safe Haskell | Safe |
---|---|
Language | Haskell2010 |
Synopsis
- class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where
- fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
- ($>) :: Functor f => f a -> b -> f b
- (<$) :: Functor f => a -> f b -> f a
- (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
- (<<$>>) :: (Functor f, Functor g) => (a -> b) -> f (g a) -> f (g b)
- (<&>) :: Functor f => f a -> (a -> b) -> f b
- void :: Functor f => f a -> f ()
- foreach :: Functor f => f a -> (a -> b) -> f b
Documentation
class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where #
A type f
is a Functor if it provides a function fmap
which, given any types a
and b
lets you apply any function from (a -> b)
to turn an f a
into an f b
, preserving the
structure of f
. Furthermore f
needs to adhere to the following:
Note, that the second law follows from the free theorem of the type fmap
and
the first law, so you need only check that the former condition holds.
fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b #
Using ApplicativeDo
: '
' can be understood as
the fmap
f asdo
expression
do a <- as pure (f a)
with an inferred Functor
constraint.
Instances
Functor [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor IO | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Par1 | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Async | |
Functor Concurrently | |
Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async fmap :: (a -> b) -> Concurrently a -> Concurrently b # (<$) :: a -> Concurrently b -> Concurrently a # | |
Functor Complex | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Min | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Max | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor First | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Last | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Option | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ZipList | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Handler | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Functor STM | Since: base-4.3.0.0 |
Functor First | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Last | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Down | Since: base-4.11.0.0 |
Functor ReadP | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor IntMap | |
Functor Seq | |
Functor FingerTree | |
Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> FingerTree a -> FingerTree b # (<$) :: a -> FingerTree b -> FingerTree a # | |
Functor Digit | |
Functor Node | |
Functor Elem | |
Functor ViewL | |
Functor ViewR | |
Functor P | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP | |
Functor (Either a) | Since: base-3.0 |
Functor (V1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (U1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ((,) a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (ST s) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (Array i) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (Arg a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b # (<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a # | |
Arrow a => Functor (ArrowMonad a) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Arrow fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b # (<$) :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 # | |
Functor (Proxy :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Functor (Map k) | |
Functor m => Functor (ListT m) | |
Functor m => Functor (MaybeT m) | |
Functor f => Functor (Rec1 f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Char :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Double :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Float :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Int :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Word :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec (Ptr ()) :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ((,,) a b) | Since: base-4.14.0.0 |
Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 # (<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 # | |
Functor m => Functor (Kleisli m a) | Since: base-4.14.0.0 |
Functor (Const m :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor f => Functor (Ap f) | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (Alt f) | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
(Applicative f, Monad f) => Functor (WhenMissing f x) | Since: containers-0.5.9 |
Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b # (<$) :: a -> WhenMissing f x b -> WhenMissing f x a # | |
Functor m => Functor (IdentityT m) | |
Functor m => Functor (ErrorT e m) | |
Functor m => Functor (ExceptT e m) | |
Functor m => Functor (ReaderT r m) | |
Functor m => Functor (StateT s m) | |
Functor m => Functor (StateT s m) | |
Functor m => Functor (WriterT w m) | |
Functor m => Functor (WriterT w m) | |
Functor ((->) r :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (K1 i c :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :+: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :*: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ((,,,) a b c) | Since: base-4.14.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Product f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Sum f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (WhenMatched f x y) | Since: containers-0.5.9 |
Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b # (<$) :: a -> WhenMatched f x y b -> WhenMatched f x y a # | |
(Applicative f, Monad f) => Functor (WhenMissing f k x) | Since: containers-0.5.9 |
Defined in Data.Map.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b # (<$) :: a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x a # | |
Functor f => Functor (M1 i c f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :.: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Compose f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (WhenMatched f k x y) | Since: containers-0.5.9 |
Defined in Data.Map.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b # (<$) :: a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y a # | |
Functor m => Functor (RWST r w s m) | |
Functor m => Functor (RWST r w s m) | |
($>) :: Functor f => f a -> b -> f b infixl 4 #
Flipped version of <$
.
Using ApplicativeDo
: 'as
' can be understood as the
$>
bdo
expression
do as pure b
with an inferred Functor
constraint.
Examples
Replace the contents of a
with a constant
Maybe
Int
String
:
>>>
Nothing $> "foo"
Nothing>>>
Just 90210 $> "foo"
Just "foo"
Replace the contents of an
with a constant Either
Int
Int
String
, resulting in an
:Either
Int
String
>>>
Left 8675309 $> "foo"
Left 8675309>>>
Right 8675309 $> "foo"
Right "foo"
Replace each element of a list with a constant String
:
>>>
[1,2,3] $> "foo"
["foo","foo","foo"]
Replace the second element of a pair with a constant String
:
>>>
(1,2) $> "foo"
(1,"foo")
Since: base-4.7.0.0
(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #
An infix synonym for fmap
.
The name of this operator is an allusion to $
.
Note the similarities between their types:
($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
Whereas $
is function application, <$>
is function
application lifted over a Functor
.
Examples
Convert from a
to a Maybe
Int
using Maybe
String
show
:
>>>
show <$> Nothing
Nothing>>>
show <$> Just 3
Just "3"
Convert from an
to an
Either
Int
Int
Either
Int
String
using show
:
>>>
show <$> Left 17
Left 17>>>
show <$> Right 17
Right "17"
Double each element of a list:
>>>
(*2) <$> [1,2,3]
[2,4,6]
Apply even
to the second element of a pair:
>>>
even <$> (2,2)
(2,True)
void :: Functor f => f a -> f () #
discards or ignores the result of evaluation, such
as the return value of an void
valueIO
action.
Using ApplicativeDo
: '
' can be understood as the
void
asdo
expression
do as pure ()
with an inferred Functor
constraint.
Examples
Replace the contents of a
with unit:Maybe
Int
>>>
void Nothing
Nothing>>>
void (Just 3)
Just ()
Replace the contents of an
with unit, resulting in an Either
Int
Int
:Either
Int
()
>>>
void (Left 8675309)
Left 8675309>>>
void (Right 8675309)
Right ()
Replace every element of a list with unit:
>>>
void [1,2,3]
[(),(),()]
Replace the second element of a pair with unit:
>>>
void (1,2)
(1,())
Discard the result of an IO
action:
>>>
mapM print [1,2]
1 2 [(),()]>>>
void $ mapM print [1,2]
1 2