rawfilepath-1.0.0: Use RawFilePath instead of FilePath
Copyright(C) XT et al. 2017
LicenseBSD-style (see the file LICENSE)
Maintainere@xtendo.org
Stabilitystable
PortabilityPOSIX
Safe HaskellNone
LanguageHaskell2010

RawFilePath.Process

Description

Welcome to RawFilePath.Process, a small part of the Haskell community's effort to replace String for the Greater Good.

With this module, you can create (and interact with) sub-processes without the encoding problem of String. The command and its arguments, all ByteStrings, never get converted from/to String internally on its way to the actual syscall. It also avoids the time/space waste of String.

The interface, unlike the original process package, uses types to prevent unnecessary runtime errors when obtaining Handles. This is inspired by the typed-process package which is awesome, although this module is much simpler; it doesn't introduce any new requirement of language extension or library package (for the sake of portability).

Handle (accessible with processStdin, processStdout, and processStderr) is what you can use to interact with the sub-process. For example, use hGetContents from Data.ByteString to read from a Handle as a ByteString.

Fast and Brief Example

If you have experience with Unix pipes, this example should be pretty straightforward. In fact it is so simple that you don't need any type theory or PL knowledge. It demonstrates how you can create a child process and interact with it.

{-# language OverloadedStrings #-}

import RawFilePath.Process
import System.IO
import qualified Data.ByteString as B


main :: IO ()
main = do
  p <- startProcess $ proc "sed" ["-e", "s/\\>/!/g"]
    `setStdin` CreatePipe
    `setStdout` CreatePipe
  B.hPut (processStdin p) "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet"
  hClose (processStdin p)
  result <- B.hGetContents (processStdout p)
  print result
  -- "Lorem! ipsum! dolor! sit! amet!"

That's it! You can totally skip the verbose explanation below.

Verbose Explanation of the Example

We launch sed as a child process. As we know, it is a regular expression search and replacement tool. In the example, sed is a simple Unix pipe utility: Take some text from stdin and output the processed text to stdout.

In sed regex, \> means "the end of the word." So, "s/\\>/!/g" means "substitute all ends of the words with an exclamation mark." Then, we feed some text to its stdin, close stdin (to send EOF to sed EOF), and read what it said to stdout.

The interesting part is proc. It is a simple function that takes a command and its arguments and returns a ProcessConf which defines the properties of the child process you want to create. You can use functions like setStdin or setStdout to change those properties.

The advantage of this interface is type safety. Take stdout for example. There are four options: Inherit, UseHandle, CreatePipe, and NoStream. If you want to read stdout of the child process, you must set it to CreatePipe. With the process package, this is done by giving a proper argument to createProcess. The trouble is, regardless of the argument, createProcess returns Maybe Handle as stdout. You may or may not get a Handle.

This is not what we want with Haskell. We want to ensure that (1) we use CreatePipe and certainly get the stdout Handle without the fear of Nothing, and (2) if we don't use CreatePipe but still request the stdout Handle, it is an error, detected at compile time.

So that's what RawFilePath.Process does. In the above example, we use functions like setStdout. Later, you use the processStdout family of functions to get the process's standard stream handles. This requires that the process was created with CreatePipe appropriately set for that stream.

It sounds all complicated, but all you really need to do is as simple as:

startProcess $ proc "..." [...] `setStdout` CreatePipe

... If you want to create a new pipe for the child process's stdin. Then you can later use processStdout to get the Handle. If you don't put the `setStdout` CreatePipe part or set it to something other than CreatePipe, it will be a compile-time error to use processStdout on this process object.

In short, it makes the correct code easy and the wrong code impossible. This approach was inspired by the typed-process package. Then why not just typed-process? rawfilepath offers

  1. RawFilePath!
  2. A lot less dependency (only three packages)
  3. A lot more portability (doesn't require any language extension).

Enjoy.

Synopsis

Documentation

type RawFilePath = ByteString #

A literal POSIX file path

Configuring process

Configuration of how a new sub-process will be launched.

data ProcessConf stdin stdout stderr Source #

The process configuration that is needed for creating new processes. Use proc to make one.

proc Source #

Arguments

:: RawFilePath

Command to run

-> [ByteString]

Arguments to the command

-> ProcessConf Inherit Inherit Inherit 

Create a process configuration with the default settings.

Configuring process standard streams

class StreamType c Source #

The class of types that determine the standard stream of a sub-process. You can decide how to initialize the standard streams (stdin, stdout, and stderr) of a sub-process with the instances of this class.

Instances

Instances details
StreamType UseHandle Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType NoStream Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType Inherit Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType CreatePipe Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

data CreatePipe Source #

Create a new pipe for the stream. You get a new Handle.

Constructors

CreatePipe 

Instances

Instances details
Show CreatePipe Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType CreatePipe Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

data Inherit Source #

Inherit the parent (current) process handle. The child will share the stream. For example, if the child writes anything to stdout, it will all go to the parent's stdout.

Constructors

Inherit 

Instances

Instances details
Show Inherit Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType Inherit Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

data NoStream Source #

No stream handle will be passed. Use when you don't want to communicate with a stream. For example, to run something silently.

Constructors

NoStream 

Instances

Instances details
Show NoStream Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType NoStream Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

data UseHandle Source #

Use the supplied Handle.

Constructors

UseHandle Handle 

Instances

Instances details
Show UseHandle Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

StreamType UseHandle Source # 
Instance details

Defined in RawFilePath.Process.Common

setStdin :: StreamType newStdin => ProcessConf oldStdin stdout stderr -> newStdin -> ProcessConf newStdin stdout stderr infixl 4 Source #

Control how the standard input of the process will be initialized.

setStdout :: StreamType newStdout => ProcessConf stdin oldStdout stderr -> newStdout -> ProcessConf stdin newStdout stderr infixl 4 Source #

Control how the standard output of the process will be initialized.

setStderr :: StreamType newStderr => ProcessConf stdin stdout oldStderr -> newStderr -> ProcessConf stdin stdout newStderr infixl 4 Source #

Control how the standard error of the process will be initialized.

Running process

data Process stdin stdout stderr Source #

The process type. The three type variables denote how its standard streams were initialized.

startProcess :: (StreamType stdin, StreamType stdout, StreamType stderr) => ProcessConf stdin stdout stderr -> IO (Process stdin stdout stderr) Source #

Start a new sub-process with the given configuration.

Obtaining process streams

As the type signature suggests, these functions only work on processes whose stream in configured to CreatePipe. This is the type-safe way of obtaining Handles instead of returning Maybe Handles like the process package does.

processStdin :: Process CreatePipe stdout stderr -> Handle Source #

Take a process and return its standard input handle.

processStdout :: Process stdin CreatePipe stderr -> Handle Source #

Take a process and return its standard output handle.

processStderr :: Process stdin stdout CreatePipe -> Handle Source #

Take a process and return its standard error handle.

Process completion

stopProcess :: Process stdin stdout stderr -> IO ExitCode Source #

Stop a sub-process. For now it simply calls terminateProcess and then waitForProcess.

terminateProcess :: Process stdin stdout stderr -> IO () Source #

Terminate a sub-process by sending SIGTERM to it.

waitForProcess :: Process stdin stdout stderr -> IO ExitCode Source #

Wait (block) for a sub-process to exit and obtain its exit code.

Utility functions

These are utility functions; they can be implemented with the primary functions above. They are provided for convenience.

callProcess :: ProcessConf stdin stdout stderr -> IO ExitCode Source #

Create a new process with the given configuration, and wait for it to finish.

readProcessWithExitCode :: ProcessConf stdin stdout stderr -> IO (ExitCode, ByteString, ByteString) Source #

Fork an external process, read its standard output and standard error strictly, blocking until the process terminates, and return them with the process exit code.