-- |
-- Module    : Replace.Attoparsec.Text
-- Copyright : ©2019 James Brock
-- License   : BSD2
-- Maintainer: James Brock <jamesbrock@gmail.com>
-- __Replace.Attoparsec__ is for finding text patterns, and also editing and
-- replacing the found patterns.
-- This activity is traditionally done with regular expressions,
-- but __Replace.Attoparsec__ uses "Data.Attoparsec" parsers instead for
-- the pattern matching.
-- __Replace.Attoparsec__ can be used in the same sort of “pattern capture”
-- or “find all” situations in which one would use Python
-- <https://docs.python.org/3/library/re.html#re.findall re.findall>,
-- or Perl
-- <https://perldoc.perl.org/functions/m.html m//>,
-- or Unix
-- <https://www.gnu.org/software/grep/ grep>.
-- __Replace.Attoparsec__ can be used in the same sort of “stream editing”
-- or “search-and-replace” situations in which one would use Python
-- <https://docs.python.org/3/library/re.html#re.sub re.sub>,
-- or Perl
-- <https://perldoc.perl.org/functions/s.html s///>,
-- or Unix
-- <https://www.gnu.org/software/sed/manual/html_node/The-_0022s_0022-Command.html sed>,
-- or
-- <https://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/manual/gawk.html awk>.
-- See the __[replace-attoparsec](https://hackage.haskell.org/package/replace-attoparsec)__ package README for usage examples.

{-# LANGUAGE LambdaCase #-}
{-# LANGUAGE BangPatterns #-}

module Replace.Attoparsec.Text
    -- * Parser combinator
  , findAll
  , findAllCap

    -- * Running parser
  , streamEdit
  , streamEditT

import Data.Functor.Identity
import Data.Bifunctor
import Control.Applicative
import Control.Monad
import Data.Attoparsec.Text as A
import qualified Data.Text as T
import qualified Data.Text.Internal as TI
import qualified Data.Attoparsec.Internal.Types as AT

-- |
-- == Separate and capture
-- Parser combinator to find all of the non-overlapping ocurrences
-- of the pattern @sep@ in a text stream. Separate the stream into sections:
-- * sections which can parsed by the pattern @sep@ will be captured as
--   matching sections in 'Right'
-- * non-matching sections of the stream will be captured in 'Left'.
-- This parser will always consume its entire input and can never fail.
-- If there are no pattern matches, then the entire input stream will be
-- returned as a non-matching 'Left' section.
-- The pattern matching parser @sep@ will not be allowed to succeed without
-- consuming any input. If we allow the parser to match a zero-width pattern,
-- then it can match the same zero-width pattern again at the same position
-- on the next iteration, which would result in an infinite number of
-- overlapping pattern matches. So, for example, the
-- pattern @many digit@, which can match zero occurences of a digit,
-- will be treated by @sepCap@ as @many1 digit@, and required to match
-- at least one digit.
-- This @sepCap@ parser combinator is the basis for all of the other
-- features of this module. It is similar to the @sep*@ family of functions
-- found in
-- <http://hackage.haskell.org/package/parser-combinators/docs/Control-Monad-Combinators.html parser-combinators>
-- and
-- <http://hackage.haskell.org/package/parsers/docs/Text-Parser-Combinators.html parsers>
-- but, importantly, it returns the parsed result of the @sep@ parser instead
-- of throwing it away.
    :: Parser a -- ^ The pattern matching parser @sep@
    -> Parser [Either T.Text a]
sepCap sep = getOffset >>= go
    -- the go function will search for the first pattern match,
    -- and then capture the pattern match along with the preceding
    -- unmatched string, and then recurse.
    -- offsetBegin is the position in the buffer after the last pattern
    -- match.
    go !offsetBegin = do
        !offsetThis <- getOffset
            ( do
                -- http://hackage.haskell.org/package/attoparsec-
                _ <- endOfInput
                if offsetThis > offsetBegin
                        -- If we're at the end of the input, then return
                        -- whatever unmatched string we've got since offsetBegin
                        substring offsetBegin offsetThis >>= \s -> pure [Left s]
                    else pure []
            ( do
                -- About 'thisiter':
                -- It looks stupid and introduces a completely unnecessary
                -- Maybe, but when I refactor to eliminate 'thisiter' and
                -- the Maybe then the benchmarks get dramatically worse.
                thisiter <- (<|>)
                    ( do
                        x <- sep
                        !offsetAfter <- getOffset
                        -- Don't allow a match of a zero-width pattern
                        when (offsetAfter <= offsetThis) empty
                        return $ Just (x, offsetAfter)
                    (anyChar >> return Nothing)
                case thisiter of
                    (Just (x, !offsetAfter)) | offsetThis > offsetBegin -> do
                        -- we've got a match with some preceding unmatched string
                        unmatched <- substring offsetBegin offsetThis
                        (Left unmatched:) <$> (Right x:) <$> go offsetAfter
                    (Just (x, !offsetAfter)) -> do
                        -- we're got a match with no preceding unmatched string
                        (Right x:) <$> go offsetAfter
                    Nothing -> go offsetBegin -- no match, try again

    -- Extract a substring from part of the buffer that we've already visited.
    -- The idea here is that we go back and run the parser 'take' at the Pos
    -- which we saved from before, and then we continue from the current Pos,
    -- hopefully without messing up the internal parser state.
    -- http://hackage.haskell.org/package/attoparsec-
    -- Should be equivalent to the unexported function
    -- http://hackage.haskell.org/package/attoparsec-
    -- This is a performance optimization for gathering the unmatched
    -- sections of the input. The alternative is to accumulate unmatched
    -- characters one anyChar at a time in a list of [Char] and then pack
    -- them into a Text.
    substring :: Int -> Int -> Parser T.Text
    substring !bgn !end = AT.Parser $ \t pos more lose succes ->
        let succes' _t _pos _more a = succes t pos more a
        AT.runParser (takeCheat (end - bgn)) t (AT.Pos bgn) more lose succes'
        -- Dear reader, you deserve an explanation for 'takeCheat'. The
        -- alternative to running 'takeCheat' here would be the following line:
        -- AT.runParser (A.take (end - bgn)) t (AT.Pos bgn) more lose succes'
        -- But 'Attoparsec.take' is not correct, and 'takeCheat' is correct.
        -- It is correct because the Pos which we got from 'getOffset' is an
        -- index into the underlying Data.Text.Array, so (end - bgn) is
        -- in units of the length of the Data.Text.Array, not in units of the
        -- number of Chars.
        -- Furthermore 'takeCheat' is a lot faster because 'A.take' takes a
        -- number of Chars and then iterates over the Text by the number
        -- of Chars, advancing by 4 bytes when it encounters a wide Char.
        -- So, O(N). takeCheat is O(1).
        -- This will be fine as long as we always call 'takeCheat' on the
        -- immutable, already-visited part of the Attoparsec.Text.Buffer's
        -- Data.Text.Array. Which we do.
        -- It's named 'takeCheat' because we're getting access to
        -- the Attoparsec.Text.Buffer through the Data.Text.Internal
        -- interface, even though Attoparsec is extremely vigilant about
        -- not exposing its buffers.
        -- http://hackage.haskell.org/package/text-
        -- takeCheat :: Int -> Parser T.Text
        takeCheat len = do
            (TI.Text arr off _len) <- A.take 1
            return (TI.Text arr off len)
{-# INLINABLE sepCap #-}

-- |
-- == Find all occurences, parse and capture pattern matches
-- Parser combinator for finding all occurences of a pattern in a stream.
-- Will call 'sepCap' with the 'Data.Attoparsec.Text.match' combinator so that
-- the text which matched the pattern parser @sep@ will be returned in
-- the 'Right' sections, along with the result of the parse of @sep@.
-- Definition:
-- @
-- findAllCap sep = 'sepCap' ('Data.Attoparsec.Text.match' sep)
-- @
    :: Parser a -- ^ The pattern matching parser @sep@
    -> Parser [Either T.Text (T.Text, a)]
findAllCap sep = sepCap (match sep)
{-# INLINABLE findAllCap #-}

-- |
-- == Find all occurences
-- Parser combinator for finding all occurences of a pattern in a stream.
-- Will call 'sepCap' with the 'Data.Attoparsec.Text.match' combinator and
-- return the text which matched the pattern parser @sep@ in
-- the 'Right' sections.
-- Definition:
-- @
-- findAll sep = (fmap.fmap) ('Data.Bifunctor.second' fst) $ 'sepCap' ('Data.Attoparsec.Text.match' sep)
-- @
    :: Parser a -- ^ The pattern matching parser @sep@
    -> Parser [Either T.Text T.Text]
findAll sep = (fmap.fmap) (second fst) $ sepCap (match sep)
{-# INLINABLE findAll #-}

-- |
-- == Stream editor
-- Also known as “find-and-replace”, or “match-and-substitute”. Finds all
-- of the sections of the stream which match the pattern @sep@, and replaces
-- them with the result of the @editor@ function.
-- This function is not a “parser combinator,” it is
-- a “way to run a parser”, like 'Data.Attoparsec.Text.parse'
-- or 'Data.Attoparsec.Text.parseOnly'.
-- === Access the matched section of text in the @editor@
-- If you want access to the matched string in the @editor@ function,
-- then combine the pattern parser @sep@
-- with 'Data.Attoparsec.Text.match'. This will effectively change
-- the type of the @editor@ function to @(Text,a) -> Text@.
-- This allows us to write an @editor@ function which can choose to not
-- edit the match and just leave it as it is. If the @editor@ function
-- always returns the first item in the tuple, then @streamEdit@ changes
-- nothing.
-- So, for all @sep@:
-- @
-- streamEdit ('Data.Attoparsec.Text.match' sep) 'Data.Tuple.fst' ≡ 'Data.Function.id'
-- @
    :: Parser a
        -- ^ The parser @sep@ for the pattern of interest.
    -> (a -> T.Text)
        -- ^ The @editor@ function. Takes a parsed result of @sep@
        -- and returns a new stream section for the replacement.
    -> T.Text
        -- ^ The input stream of text to be edited.
    -> T.Text
streamEdit sep editor = runIdentity . streamEditT sep (Identity . editor)
{-# INLINABLE streamEdit #-}

-- |
-- == Stream editor transformer
-- Monad transformer version of 'streamEdit'.
-- The @editor@ function will run in the underlying monad context.
-- If you want to do 'IO' operations in the @editor@ function then
-- run this in 'IO'.
-- If you want the @editor@ function to remember some state,
-- then run this in a stateful monad.
    :: (Monad m)
    => Parser a
        -- ^ The parser @sep@ for the pattern of interest.
    -> (a -> m T.Text)
        -- ^ The @editor@ function. Takes a parsed result of @sep@
        -- and returns a new stream section for the replacement.
    -> T.Text
        -- ^ The input stream of text to be edited.
    -> m T.Text
streamEditT sep editor input = do
    case parseOnly (sepCap sep) input of
        (Left err) -> error err
        -- this function should never error, because it only errors
        -- when the 'sepCap' parser fails, and the 'sepCap' parser
        -- can never fail. If this function ever throws an error, please
        -- report that as a bug.
        -- (We don't use MonadFail because Identity is not a MonadFail.)
        (Right r) -> fmap mconcat $ traverse (either return editor) r
{-# INLINABLE streamEditT #-}

-- |
-- Get the 'Data.Attoparsec.Internal.Types.Parser' current offset
-- 'Data.Attoparsec.Internal.Types.Pos' in the stream.
-- Note that this is not the number of 'Data.Char's which have been consumed,
-- rather it is an offset into the underlying 'Data.Text.Internal.Text'
-- array buffer, so you cannot use it as an argument to 'Data.Text.index'.
-- But you /can/ use it as an argument to 'Data.Text.Internal.text'.
-- [“… you know you're in an uncomfortable state of sin :-)” — bos](https://github.com/bos/attoparsec/issues/101)
getOffset :: Parser Int
getOffset = AT.Parser $ \t pos more _ succ' -> succ' t pos more (AT.fromPos pos)
{-# INLINABLE getOffset #-}