typed-encoding- Type safe string transformations

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Examples or moving between type annotated encodings

Haskell programs typically make these imports to do String, ByteString, and Text conversions:

import qualified Data.Text as T (pack, unpack)
import qualified Data.ByteString.Char8 as B8 (pack, unpack)
import           Data.Text.Encoding (decodeUtf8, encodeUtf8)

or corresponding Lazy imports (not shown).

Enc-specific equivalents can be found in:

import qualified Data.TypedEncoding.Conv.Text as EncT (pack, unpack)
import qualified Data.TypedEncoding.Conv.ByteString.Char8 as EncB8 (pack, unpack)
import           Data.TypedEncoding.Conv.Text.Encoding (decodeUtf8, encodeUtf8)

Conversions aim at providing type safety when moving between encoded string-like types.

The assumption made by typed-encoding is that "enc-" encodings work in an equivalent way independently of the payload type. For example, if the following instances exist:

EncodeF SomeErr (Enc xs () String) (Enc ("enc-B64" ': xs) () String)    
EncodeF SomeErr (Enc xs () Text) (Enc ("enc-B64" ': xs) () Text)    

Then typed-encoding expects pack encodeF to commute (if encoding instances exist):

 str     -- EncT.pack -->   txt
  |                          |
 encodeF                  encodeF
  |                          | 
  v                          v
 estr -- fmap EncT.pack --> etxt

(unpack and $decode$ are expected to satisfy similar diagrams, not shown)

Basically, it should not matter which type we run the encoding (or decoding) on (other than performance cost).

Note that, as a consequence, multi-byte encodings (such as enc-UTF8 - available in typed-encoding-encoding package) that encode a Unicode characters into several bytes cannot be decoded in ByteString as this would violate EncB8.pack and EncB8.unpack consistency.

Also note that this requirement is concerned about "enc-" encodings, "r-" encodings are much simpler to reason about in conversions.

This module also discusses concepts of Superset (for "r-" encodings), leniency, and flattening.



>>> :set -XDataKinds -XMultiParamTypeClasses -XKindSignatures -XFlexibleInstances -XFlexibleContexts -XOverloadedStrings -XTypeApplications -XScopedTypeVariables
>>> import qualified Data.TypedEncoding.Instances.Enc.Base64 as EnB64 (acceptLenientS)
>>> import qualified Data.TypedEncoding.Conv.Text as EncT (pack, utf8Promote, utf8Demote)
>>> import qualified Data.TypedEncoding.Conv.ByteString.Char8 as EncB8 (pack, unpack)
>>> import qualified Data.TypedEncoding.Conv.Text.Encoding as EncTe (decodeUtf8, encodeUtf8)
>>> import           Data.Proxy

This module contains some ghci friendly values to play with.

Each value is documented in a doctest style by including an equivalent ghci ready expression. These documents generate a test suite for this library as well.

Moving between Text and ByteString

eHelloAsciiB :: Either EncodeEx (Enc '["r-ASCII"] () ByteString) Source #

Example value to play with

>>> encodeFAll . toEncoding () $ "HeLlo world" :: Either EncodeEx (Enc '["r-ASCII"] () B.ByteString)
Right (UnsafeMkEnc Proxy () "HeLlo world")

helloAsciiB :: Enc ("r-ASCII" ': ([] :: [Symbol])) () ByteString Source #

above with either removed

helloAsciiT :: Enc '["r-ASCII"] () Text Source #

We use a tween function of the popular decodeUtf8 from the text package.

Notice the encoding annotation is preserved.

>>> displ $ EncTe.decodeUtf8 helloAsciiB
"Enc '[r-ASCII] () (Text HeLlo world)"

pack from String

helloZero :: Enc ('[] :: [Symbol]) () String Source #

Consider 0-encoding of a String, to move it to Enc '[] () ByteString one could try:

>>> EncB8.pack helloZero
... error: 
... Empty list, no last element

this does not compile. And it should not. pack from Data.ByteString.Char8 is error prone. It is not an injection as it only considers first 8 bits of information from each Char. I doubt that there are any code examples of its intentional use on a String that has chars > '255'.

EncB8.pack will not compile unless the encoding has "r-CHAR8" as its superset. This works:

>>> fmap (displ . EncB8.pack) . encodeFAll @'["r-ASCII"] @(Either EncodeEx) $ helloZero
Right "Enc '[r-ASCII] () (ByteString Hello)"

And the result is a ByteString with bonus annotation describing its content.

Similar game is played for Text:

>>> fmap (displ . EncT.d76Demote . EncT.pack) . encodeFAll @'["r-UNICODE.D76"] @(Either EncodeEx) $ helloZero
Right "Enc '[] () (Text Hello)"

See Data.TypedEncoding.Conv for more information on this.

helloRestricted :: Either EncodeEx (Enc '["r-ban:zzzzz"] () ByteString) Source #

more interestingly EncB8.pack works fine on "r-" encodings that are subsets of "r-ASCII" this example "r-ban:zzzzz" restricts to 5 alpha-numeric charters all < 'z'

>>> displ <$> helloRestricted
Right "Enc '[r-ban:zzzzz] () (ByteString Hello)"

Adding "r-ASCII" annotation on this ByteString would have been redundant since "r-ban:zzzzz" is more restrictive (see Supersets below).

unpack, as expected will put us back in a String keeping the annotation

>>> fmap (displ . EncB8.unpack) helloRestricted
Right "Enc '[r-ban:zzzzz] () (String Hello)"

byteRep :: Either EncodeEx (Enc '["r-ByteRep"] () ByteString) Source #

For low level use of Char instead of Word8, "r-ByteRep" represents anything under 256.

More complex rules

helloUtf8B64B :: Enc '["enc-B64", "r-UTF8"] () ByteString Source #

We Base64 encode a ByteString which adheres to UTF8 layout

>>> displ $ encodePart @'["enc-B64"] helloUtf8B
"Enc '[enc-B64,r-UTF8] () (ByteString SGVMbG8gd29ybGQ=)"

helloUtf8B64T :: Enc '["enc-B64"] () Text Source #

.. and copy it over to Text.

>>> displ $ EncTe.decodeUtf8 helloUtf8B64B
"Enc '[enc-B64,r-UTF8] () (Text SGVMbG8gd29ybGQ=)"

but UTF8 would be redundant in Text so the "r-UTF8" can be dropped:

>>> displ . EncT.utf8Demote . EncTe.decodeUtf8 $ helloUtf8B64B
"Enc '[enc-B64] () (Text SGVMbG8gd29ybGQ=)"

Conversely moving back to ByteString we need to recover the annotation

>>> :t EncTe.encodeUtf8 helloUtf8B64T
... Couldn't match type ‘IsSupersetOpen
... "r-UTF8" "enc-B64" ...

This is not allowed! We need to add the redundant "r-UTF8" back:

>>> displ .  EncTe.encodeUtf8 . EncT.utf8Promote $ helloUtf8B64T
"Enc '[enc-B64,r-UTF8] () (ByteString SGVMbG8gd29ybGQ=)"

To achieve type safety, our encodeUtf8 and decodeUtf8 require "r-UTF8" annotation. But since Text values can always emit UTF8 layout, we can simply add and remove these annotations on Text encodings. This approach gives us type level safety over UTF8 encoding/decoding errors.

notTextB :: Enc '["enc-B64"] () ByteString Source #

notTextB a binary, one that does not even represent a valid UTF8.

>>> encodeAll . toEncoding () $ "\195\177" :: Enc '["enc-B64"] () B.ByteString
UnsafeMkEnc Proxy () "w7E="

Decoding it to Text is prevented by the compiler

>>> :t EncTe.decodeUtf8 notTextB
... error:
... Couldn't match type ...
... "r-UTF8" "enc-B64" ...

This is good because having the payload inside of Enc '["enc-B64"] () Text would allow us to try to decode it to Text (causing runtime errors).

We can move it to Text but to do that we will need to forget the "enc-B64" annotation. This can be done, for example, using flattening (see below).


helloUtf8B :: Enc '["r-UTF8"] () ByteString Source #

To claim UTF8 on helloAsciiB, instead encoding again:

>>> encodeFAll . toEncoding () $ "HeLlo world" :: Either EncodeEx (Enc '["r-UTF8"] () B.ByteString)
Right (UnsafeMkEnc Proxy () "HeLlo world")

We should be able to convert the ASCII annotation directly.

This is done using IsSuperset type family.

injectInto method accepts proxy to specify superset to use.

>>> displ $ injectInto @ "r-UTF8" helloAsciiB
"Enc '[r-UTF8] () (ByteString HeLlo world)"

Superset is intended for "r-" annotations only, should not be used with general encodings like "enc-B64", it assumes that decoding in the superset can replace the decoding from injected subset.

notTextBB64Ascii :: Enc '["r-ASCII", "enc-B64"] () ByteString Source #

Base64 encoding represents binary data in an ASCII string format.

In Haskell, we should be able to express this in types.

EncodingSuperset class is what specifies this.

We can use it with _encodesInto combinator. EncodingSuperset should not be used directly at the calling site.

>>> displ (_encodesInto @"r-ASCII" $ notTextB)
"Enc '[r-ASCII,enc-B64] () (ByteString w7E=)"

_encodesInto can be used with a superset of the encoding character set as well making it more backward compatible (the definition of @EncodingSuperset "enc-B64" could be made more precise without breaking the code).

>>> displ (_encodesInto @"r-UTF8" $ notTextB)
"Enc '[r-UTF8,enc-B64] () (ByteString w7E=)"

Lenient recovery

lenientSomething :: Enc '["enc-B64-len"] () ByteString Source #

>>> recreateAll . toEncoding () $ "abc==CB" :: Enc '["enc-B64-len"] () B.ByteString
UnsafeMkEnc Proxy () "abc==CB"

The rest of Haskell does lenient decoding, type safety allows this library to use it for recovery. lenient algorithms are not partial and automatically fix invalid input:

>>> recreateFAll . toEncoding () $ "abc==CB" :: Either RecreateEx (Enc '["enc-B64"] () B.ByteString)
Left (RecreateEx "enc-B64" ("invalid padding"))

This library allows to recover to "enc-B64-len" which is different than "enc-B64"

acceptLenientS allows to convert "enc-B64-len" to "enc-B64"

>>> displ $ EnB64.acceptLenientS lenientSomething
"Enc '[enc-B64] () (ByteString abc=)"

This is now properly encoded data

>>> recreateFAll . toEncoding () $ "abc=" :: Either RecreateEx (Enc '["enc-B64"] () B.ByteString)
Right (UnsafeMkEnc Proxy () "abc=")

Except the content could be surprising

>>> decodeAll $ EnB64.acceptLenientS lenientSomething
UnsafeMkEnc Proxy () "i\183"


b64IsAscii :: Enc '["r-ASCII"] () ByteString Source #

Base 64 encodes binary data as ASCII text. thus, we should be able to treat "enc-B64" as "r-ASCII" losing some information. this is done using FlattenAs type class

>>> :t flattenAs @ "r-ASCII" helloUtf8B64B
flattenAs @ "r-ASCII" helloUtf8B64B
... :: Enc '["r-ASCII"] () B.ByteString