Safe Haskell | Safe-Inferred |
---|---|
Language | Haskell2010 |
Synopsis
- class GZero a where
- gzero :: a x
- class Zeros z where
- data Maybe a
- maybeToList :: Maybe a -> [a]
- maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b
- mapMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b]
- listToMaybe :: [a] -> Maybe a
- isNothing :: Maybe a -> Bool
- isJust :: Maybe a -> Bool
- fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a
- fromJust :: HasCallStack => Maybe a -> a
- catMaybes :: [Maybe a] -> [a]
- data Either a b
- rights :: [Either a b] -> [b]
- partitionEithers :: [Either a b] -> ([a], [b])
- lefts :: [Either a b] -> [a]
- isRight :: Either a b -> Bool
- isLeft :: Either a b -> Bool
- fromRight :: b -> Either a b -> b
- fromLeft :: a -> Either a b -> a
- either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c
Documentation
a minimal algebraic type with nothing than an identity useful to identify a specific value in a type
Nothing
Instances
Zeros () Source # | |
Zeros Bool Source # | |
Zeros Char Source # | |
Zeros Int Source # | |
Zeros (Maybe a) Source # | |
Zeros [a] Source # | |
(Zeros a, Zeros b) => Zeros (a, b) Source # | |
(Zeros a, Zeros b, Zeros c) => Zeros (a, b, c) Source # | |
(Zeros a, Zeros b, Zeros c, Zeros d) => Zeros (a, b, c, d) Source # | |
(Zeros a, Zeros b, Zeros c, Zeros d, Zeros e) => Zeros (a, b, c, d, e) Source # | |
The Maybe
type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type
either contains a value of type Maybe
aa
(represented as
),
or it is empty (represented as Just
aNothing
). Using Maybe
is a good way to
deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic
measures such as error
.
The Maybe
type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error
monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing
. A richer
error monad can be built using the Either
type.
Instances
MonadFail Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Monad.Fail | |
Foldable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # | |
Eq1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Ord1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |
Read1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |
Show1 Maybe | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Traversable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Alternative Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Applicative Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Monad Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
MonadPlus Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Generic1 Maybe | |
Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a) | Lift a semigroup into Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner Since: base-2.1 |
Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Generic (Maybe a) | |
SingKind a => SingKind (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.Generics type DemoteRep (Maybe a) | |
Read a => Read (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Show a => Show (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Ord a => Ord (Maybe a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Zeros (Maybe a) Source # | |
SingI ('Nothing :: Maybe a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.Generics | |
SingI a2 => SingI ('Just a2 :: Maybe a1) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.Generics | |
type Rep1 Maybe | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
type DemoteRep (Maybe a) | |
Defined in GHC.Generics | |
type Rep (Maybe a) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.Generics | |
data Sing (b :: Maybe a) | |
maybeToList :: Maybe a -> [a] #
The maybeToList
function returns an empty list when given
Nothing
or a singleton list when given Just
.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maybeToList (Just 7)
[7]
>>>
maybeToList Nothing
[]
One can use maybeToList
to avoid pattern matching when combined
with a function that (safely) works on lists:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
sum $ maybeToList (readMaybe "3")
3>>>
sum $ maybeToList (readMaybe "")
0
maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b #
The maybe
function takes a default value, a function, and a Maybe
value. If the Maybe
value is Nothing
, the function returns the
default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside
the Just
and returns the result.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maybe False odd (Just 3)
True
>>>
maybe False odd Nothing
False
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we succeed,
return twice the integer; that is, apply (*2)
to it. If instead
we fail to parse an integer, return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "5")
10>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "")
0
Apply show
to a Maybe Int
. If we have Just n
, we want to show
the underlying Int
n
. But if we have Nothing
, we return the
empty string instead of (for example) "Nothing":
>>>
maybe "" show (Just 5)
"5">>>
maybe "" show Nothing
""
mapMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b] #
The mapMaybe
function is a version of map
which can throw
out elements. In particular, the functional argument returns
something of type
. If this is Maybe
bNothing
, no element
is added on to the result list. If it is
, then Just
bb
is
included in the result list.
Examples
Using
is a shortcut for mapMaybe
f x
in most cases:catMaybes
$ map
f x
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
let readMaybeInt = readMaybe :: String -> Maybe Int
>>>
mapMaybe readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]>>>
catMaybes $ map readMaybeInt ["1", "Foo", "3"]
[1,3]
If we map the Just
constructor, the entire list should be returned:
>>>
mapMaybe Just [1,2,3]
[1,2,3]
listToMaybe :: [a] -> Maybe a #
The listToMaybe
function returns Nothing
on an empty list
or
where Just
aa
is the first element of the list.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
listToMaybe []
Nothing
>>>
listToMaybe [9]
Just 9
>>>
listToMaybe [1,2,3]
Just 1
Composing maybeToList
with listToMaybe
should be the identity
on singleton/empty lists:
>>>
maybeToList $ listToMaybe [5]
[5]>>>
maybeToList $ listToMaybe []
[]
But not on lists with more than one element:
>>>
maybeToList $ listToMaybe [1,2,3]
[1]
fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a #
The fromMaybe
function takes a default value and a Maybe
value. If the Maybe
is Nothing
, it returns the default value;
otherwise, it returns the value contained in the Maybe
.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
fromMaybe "" (Just "Hello, World!")
"Hello, World!"
>>>
fromMaybe "" Nothing
""
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we fail to
parse an integer, we want to return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "5")
5>>>
fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "")
0
fromJust :: HasCallStack => Maybe a -> a #
catMaybes :: [Maybe a] -> [a] #
The catMaybes
function takes a list of Maybe
s and returns
a list of all the Just
values.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
catMaybes [Just 1, Nothing, Just 3]
[1,3]
When constructing a list of Maybe
values, catMaybes
can be used
to return all of the "success" results (if the list is the result
of a map
, then mapMaybe
would be more appropriate):
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
[readMaybe x :: Maybe Int | x <- ["1", "Foo", "3"] ]
[Just 1,Nothing,Just 3]>>>
catMaybes $ [readMaybe x :: Maybe Int | x <- ["1", "Foo", "3"] ]
[1,3]
The Either
type represents values with two possibilities: a value of
type
is either Either
a b
or Left
a
.Right
b
The Either
type is sometimes used to represent a value which is
either correct or an error; by convention, the Left
constructor is
used to hold an error value and the Right
constructor is used to
hold a correct value (mnemonic: "right" also means "correct").
Examples
The type
is the type of values which can be either
a Either
String
Int
String
or an Int
. The Left
constructor can be used only on
String
s, and the Right
constructor can be used only on Int
s:
>>>
let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>>
s
Left "foo">>>
let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>>
n
Right 3>>>
:type s
s :: Either String Int>>>
:type n
n :: Either String Int
The fmap
from our Functor
instance will ignore Left
values, but
will apply the supplied function to values contained in a Right
:
>>>
let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>>
let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>>
fmap (*2) s
Left "foo">>>
fmap (*2) n
Right 6
The Monad
instance for Either
allows us to chain together multiple
actions which may fail, and fail overall if any of the individual
steps failed. First we'll write a function that can either parse an
Int
from a Char
, or fail.
>>>
import Data.Char ( digitToInt, isDigit )
>>>
:{
let parseEither :: Char -> Either String Int parseEither c | isDigit c = Right (digitToInt c) | otherwise = Left "parse error">>>
:}
The following should work, since both '1'
and '2'
can be
parsed as Int
s.
>>>
:{
let parseMultiple :: Either String Int parseMultiple = do x <- parseEither '1' y <- parseEither '2' return (x + y)>>>
:}
>>>
parseMultiple
Right 3
But the following should fail overall, since the first operation where
we attempt to parse 'm'
as an Int
will fail:
>>>
:{
let parseMultiple :: Either String Int parseMultiple = do x <- parseEither 'm' y <- parseEither '2' return (x + y)>>>
:}
>>>
parseMultiple
Left "parse error"
Instances
Eq2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Ord2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |
Read2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes liftReadsPrec2 :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> (Int -> ReadS b) -> ReadS [b] -> Int -> ReadS (Either a b) # liftReadList2 :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> (Int -> ReadS b) -> ReadS [b] -> ReadS [Either a b] # liftReadPrec2 :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec [b] -> ReadPrec (Either a b) # liftReadListPrec2 :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec [b] -> ReadPrec [Either a b] # | |
Show2 Either | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Generic1 (Either a :: Type -> Type) | |
Foldable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m # foldMap' :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] # length :: Either a a0 -> Int # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # | |
Eq a => Eq1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Ord a => Ord1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes | |
Read a => Read1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Classes liftReadsPrec :: (Int -> ReadS a0) -> ReadS [a0] -> Int -> ReadS (Either a a0) # liftReadList :: (Int -> ReadS a0) -> ReadS [a0] -> ReadS [Either a a0] # liftReadPrec :: ReadPrec a0 -> ReadPrec [a0] -> ReadPrec (Either a a0) # liftReadListPrec :: ReadPrec a0 -> ReadPrec [a0] -> ReadPrec [Either a a0] # | |
Show a => Show1 (Either a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Traversable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Applicative (Either e) | Since: base-3.0 |
Functor (Either a) | Since: base-3.0 |
Monad (Either e) | Since: base-4.4.0.0 |
Semigroup (Either a b) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Generic (Either a b) | |
(Read a, Read b) => Read (Either a b) | Since: base-3.0 |
(Show a, Show b) => Show (Either a b) | Since: base-3.0 |
(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b) | Since: base-2.1 |
(Ord a, Ord b) => Ord (Either a b) | Since: base-2.1 |
type Rep1 (Either a :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.Generics type Rep1 (Either a :: Type -> Type) = D1 ('MetaData "Either" "Data.Either" "base" 'False) (C1 ('MetaCons "Left" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 a)) :+: C1 ('MetaCons "Right" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) Par1)) | |
type Rep (Either a b) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.Generics type Rep (Either a b) = D1 ('MetaData "Either" "Data.Either" "base" 'False) (C1 ('MetaCons "Left" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 a)) :+: C1 ('MetaCons "Right" 'PrefixI 'False) (S1 ('MetaSel ('Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) 'NoSourceUnpackedness 'NoSourceStrictness 'DecidedLazy) (Rec0 b))) |
partitionEithers :: [Either a b] -> ([a], [b]) #
Partitions a list of Either
into two lists.
All the Left
elements are extracted, in order, to the first
component of the output. Similarly the Right
elements are extracted
to the second component of the output.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
let list = [ Left "foo", Right 3, Left "bar", Right 7, Left "baz" ]
>>>
partitionEithers list
(["foo","bar","baz"],[3,7])
The pair returned by
should be the same
pair as partitionEithers
x(
:lefts
x, rights
x)
>>>
let list = [ Left "foo", Right 3, Left "bar", Right 7, Left "baz" ]
>>>
partitionEithers list == (lefts list, rights list)
True
isRight :: Either a b -> Bool #
Return True
if the given value is a Right
-value, False
otherwise.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
isRight (Left "foo")
False>>>
isRight (Right 3)
True
Assuming a Left
value signifies some sort of error, we can use
isRight
to write a very simple reporting function that only
outputs "SUCCESS" when a computation has succeeded.
This example shows how isRight
might be used to avoid pattern
matching when one does not care about the value contained in the
constructor:
>>>
import Control.Monad ( when )
>>>
let report e = when (isRight e) $ putStrLn "SUCCESS"
>>>
report (Left "parse error")
>>>
report (Right 1)
SUCCESS
Since: base-4.7.0.0
isLeft :: Either a b -> Bool #
Return True
if the given value is a Left
-value, False
otherwise.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
isLeft (Left "foo")
True>>>
isLeft (Right 3)
False
Assuming a Left
value signifies some sort of error, we can use
isLeft
to write a very simple error-reporting function that does
absolutely nothing in the case of success, and outputs "ERROR" if
any error occurred.
This example shows how isLeft
might be used to avoid pattern
matching when one does not care about the value contained in the
constructor:
>>>
import Control.Monad ( when )
>>>
let report e = when (isLeft e) $ putStrLn "ERROR"
>>>
report (Right 1)
>>>
report (Left "parse error")
ERROR
Since: base-4.7.0.0
fromRight :: b -> Either a b -> b #
Return the contents of a Right
-value or a default value otherwise.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
fromRight 1 (Right 3)
3>>>
fromRight 1 (Left "foo")
1
Since: base-4.10.0.0
fromLeft :: a -> Either a b -> a #
Return the contents of a Left
-value or a default value otherwise.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
fromLeft 1 (Left 3)
3>>>
fromLeft 1 (Right "foo")
1
Since: base-4.10.0.0
either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c #
Case analysis for the Either
type.
If the value is
, apply the first function to Left
aa
;
if it is
, apply the second function to Right
bb
.
Examples
We create two values of type
, one using the
Either
String
Int
Left
constructor and another using the Right
constructor. Then
we apply "either" the length
function (if we have a String
)
or the "times-two" function (if we have an Int
):
>>>
let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>>
let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>>
either length (*2) s
3>>>
either length (*2) n
6