module Data.List.HT.Private where import Data.List as List (find, transpose, unfoldr, isPrefixOf, findIndices, foldl', mapAccumL, ) import Data.Maybe as Maybe (fromMaybe, catMaybes, isJust, mapMaybe, ) import Data.Maybe.HT (toMaybe, ) import Control.Monad.HT ((<=<), ) import Control.Monad (guard, msum, mplus, ) import Control.Applicative ((<$>), (<*>), ) import Data.Tuple.HT (mapPair, mapFst, mapSnd, forcePair, swap, ) import qualified Control.Functor.HT as Func import qualified Data.List.Key.Private as Key import qualified Data.List.Match.Private as Match import qualified Data.List.Reverse.StrictElement as Rev import Prelude hiding (unzip, break, span, ) -- $setup -- >>> import qualified Test.QuickCheck as QC -- >>> import Test.Utility (forAllPredicates) -- >>> import Test.QuickCheck (NonNegative(NonNegative), Positive(Positive), NonEmptyList(NonEmpty)) -- >>> import qualified Data.List as List -- >>> import Data.List (transpose) -- >>> import Data.Maybe.HT (toMaybe) -- >>> import Data.Maybe (mapMaybe, isNothing) -- >>> import Data.Char (isLetter, toUpper) -- >>> import Data.Eq.HT (equating) -- >>> import Control.Monad (liftM2) -- >>> -- >>> divMaybe :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int -- >>> divMaybe m n = case divMod n m of (q,0) -> Just q; _ -> Nothing -- >>> -- >>> forAllMaybeFn :: (QC.Testable test) => ((Int -> Maybe Int) -> test) -> QC.Property -- >>> forAllMaybeFn prop = QC.forAll (QC.choose (1,4)) $ prop . divMaybe -- * Improved standard functions {- | This function is lazier than the one suggested in the Haskell 98 report. It is @inits undefined = [] : undefined@, in contrast to @Data.List.inits undefined = undefined@. -} {- suggested in <http://www.haskell.org/pipermail/libraries/2014-July/023291.html> -} inits :: [a] -> [[a]] inits :: [a] -> [[a]] inits = ([a] -> [a]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b a. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] scanl ((a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> a -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip (:)) [] {- | As lazy as 'inits' but less efficient because of repeated 'map'. -} initsLazy :: [a] -> [[a]] initsLazy :: [a] -> [[a]] initsLazy [a] xt = [] [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : case [a] xt of [] -> [] a x:[a] xs -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] initsLazy [a] xs) {- | Suggested implementation in the Haskell 98 report. It is not as lazy as possible. -} inits98 :: [a] -> [[a]] inits98 :: [a] -> [[a]] inits98 [] = [[]] inits98 (a x:[a] xs) = [[]] [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ ([a] -> [a]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] inits98 [a] xs) inits98' :: [a] -> [[a]] inits98' :: [a] -> [[a]] inits98' = (a -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x [[a]] prefixes -> [] [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : ([a] -> [a]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) [[a]] prefixes) [[]] {- | This function is lazier than the one suggested in the Haskell 98 report. It is @tails undefined = ([] : undefined) : undefined@, in contrast to @Data.List.tails undefined = undefined@. -} tails :: [a] -> [[a]] tails :: [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] xt = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ case [a] xt of [] -> ([],[]) a _:[a] xs -> ([a] xt, [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] xs) tails' :: [a] -> [[a]] tails' :: [a] -> [[a]] tails' = ([[a]], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst (([[a]], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> ([[a]], [[a]])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> ([[a]], [[a]]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfter [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null ([[a]] -> ([[a]], [[a]])) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> ([[a]], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail tails98 :: [a] -> [[a]] tails98 :: [a] -> [[a]] tails98 [] = [[]] tails98 xxs :: [a] xxs@(a _:[a] xs) = [a] xxs [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails98 [a] xs {- | This function compares adjacent elements of a list. If two adjacent elements satisfy a relation then they are put into the same sublist. Example: >>> groupBy (<) "abcdebcdef" ["abcde","bcdef"] In contrast to that 'Data.List.groupBy' compares the head of each sublist with each candidate for this sublist. This yields >>> List.groupBy (<) "abcdebcdef" ["abcdebcdef"] The second @'b'@ is compared with the leading @'a'@. Thus it is put into the same sublist as @'a'@. The sublists are never empty. Thus the more precise result type would be @[(a,[a])]@. -} groupBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] Key.groupBy group :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [[a]] group :: [a] -> [[a]] group = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) {- | Like standard 'unzip' but more lazy. It is @Data.List.unzip undefined == undefined@, but @unzip undefined == (undefined, undefined)@. -} unzip :: [(a,b)] -> ([a],[b]) unzip :: [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) unzip = ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b])) -> ([(a, b)] -> ([a], [b])) -> [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ((a, b) -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b])) -> ([a], [b]) -> [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\ (a x,b y) ~([a] xs,[b] ys) -> (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] xs,b yb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[b] ys)) ([],[]) {- | 'Data.List.partition' of GHC 6.2.1 fails on infinite lists. But this one does not. -} {- The lazy pattern match @(y,z)@ is necessary since otherwise it fails on infinite lists. -} partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) partition :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) partition a -> Bool p = ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [a])) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x ~([a] y,[a] z) -> if a -> Bool p a x then (a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] y, [a] z) else ([a] y, a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] z)) ([],[]) {- | It is @Data.List.span f undefined = undefined@, whereas @span f undefined = (undefined, undefined)@. -} span, break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a],[a]) span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) span a -> Bool p = let recourse :: [a] -> ([a], [a]) recourse [a] xt = ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ([a], [a]) -> Maybe ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a. a -> Maybe a -> a fromMaybe ([],[a] xt) (Maybe ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> Maybe ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do (a x,[a] xs) <- [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL [a] xt Bool -> Maybe () forall (f :: * -> *). Alternative f => Bool -> f () guard (Bool -> Maybe ()) -> Bool -> Maybe () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ a -> Bool p a x ([a], [a]) -> Maybe ([a], [a]) forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (([a], [a]) -> Maybe ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> Maybe ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> ([a], [a]) recourse [a] xs in [a] -> ([a], [a]) recourse break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break a -> Bool p = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) span (Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> (a -> Bool) -> a -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . a -> Bool p) -- * Split {- | Split the list at the occurrences of a separator into sub-lists. Remove the separators. This is somehow a generalization of 'lines' and 'words'. But note the differences: >>> words "a a" ["a","a"] >>> chop (' '==) "a a" ["a","","a"] >>> lines "a\n\na" ["a","","a"] >>> chop ('\n'==) "a\n\na" ["a","","a"] >>> lines "a\n" ["a"] >>> chop ('\n'==) "a\n" ["a",""] -} chop :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] chop :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] chop a -> Bool p = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]])) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [a] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\ a x ~([a] y,[[a]] ys) -> if a -> Bool p a x then ([],[a] y[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] ys) else ((a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y),[[a]] ys) ) ([],[]) chop' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] chop' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] chop' a -> Bool p = let recourse :: [a] -> [[a]] recourse = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) mapSnd ([[a]] -> (a -> [a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b a. b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL [] (([a] -> [[a]]) -> a -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a b. a -> b -> a const [a] -> [[a]] recourse)) (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [[a]])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [a])) -> [a] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break a -> Bool p in [a] -> [[a]] recourse chopAtRun :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] chopAtRun :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] chopAtRun a -> Bool p = let recourse :: [a] -> [[a]] recourse [] = [[]] recourse [a] y = let ([a] z,[a] zs) = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break a -> Bool p ((a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] dropWhile a -> Bool p [a] y) in [a] z [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] recourse [a] zs in [a] -> [[a]] recourse {- | Like 'break', but splits after the matching element. prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> uncurry (++) (breakAfter p xs) == xs -} breakAfter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfter = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterRec breakAfterRec :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterRec :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterRec a -> Bool p = let recourse :: [a] -> ([a], [a]) recourse [] = ([],[]) recourse (a x:[a] xs) = ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ if a -> Bool p a x then ([],[a] xs) else [a] -> ([a], [a]) recourse [a] xs in ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [a])) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> ([a], [a]) recourse {- The use of 'foldr' might allow for fusion, but unfortunately this simple implementation would copy the tail of the list. -} -- | prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> breakAfterRec p xs == breakAfterFoldr p xs breakAfterFoldr :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterFoldr :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterFoldr a -> Bool p = ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [a])) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x ([a], [a]) yzs -> ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ if a -> Bool p a x then ([], ([a] -> [a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] (++) ([a], [a]) yzs) else ([a], [a]) yzs) ([],[]) -- | prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> breakAfterRec p xs == breakAfterBreak p xs breakAfterBreak :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterBreak :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterBreak a -> Bool p [a] xs = case (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break a -> Bool p [a] xs of ([a] ys, []) -> ([a] ys, []) ([a] ys, a z:[a] zs) -> ([a] ys[a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++[a z], [a] zs) -- | prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> breakAfterRec p xs == breakAfterTakeUntil p xs breakAfterTakeUntil :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterTakeUntil :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) breakAfterTakeUntil a -> Bool p [a] xs = ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ (\[(a, [a])] ys -> (((a, [a]) -> a) -> [(a, [a])] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a, [a]) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst [(a, [a])] ys, [a] -> (([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> [a]) -> Maybe ([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> [a] forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe [] ((a, [a]) -> [a] forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd ((a, [a]) -> [a]) -> (([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> (a, [a])) -> ([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> (a, [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd) (Maybe ([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> [a]) -> Maybe ([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [(a, [a])] -> Maybe ([(a, [a])], (a, [a])) forall a. [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) viewR [(a, [a])] ys)) ([(a, [a])] -> ([a], [a])) -> [(a, [a])] -> ([a], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ((a, [a]) -> Bool) -> [(a, [a])] -> [(a, [a])] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeUntil (a -> Bool p (a -> Bool) -> ((a, [a]) -> a) -> (a, [a]) -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a, [a]) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst) ([(a, [a])] -> [(a, [a])]) -> [(a, [a])] -> [(a, [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [[a]] -> [(a, [a])] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] zip [a] xs ([[a]] -> [(a, [a])]) -> [[a]] -> [(a, [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] xs {- | Take all elements until one matches. The matching element is returned, too. This is the key difference to @takeWhile (not . p)@. It holds: prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> takeUntil p xs == fst (breakAfter p xs) -} takeUntil :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeUntil :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeUntil a -> Bool p = (a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x [a] ys -> a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : if a -> Bool p a x then [] else [a] ys) [] {- | Split the list after each occurence of a terminator. Keep the terminator. There is always a list for the part after the last terminator. It may be empty. See package @non-empty@ for more precise result type. prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> concat (segmentAfter p xs) == xs prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> length (filter p xs) == length (tail (segmentAfter p xs)) prop> forAllPredicates $ \p -> all (p . last) . init . segmentAfter p prop> forAllPredicates $ \p -> all (all (not . p) . init) . init . segmentAfter p This test captures both infinitely many groups and infinitely big groups: prop> forAllPredicates $ \p x -> flip seq True . (!!100) . concat . segmentAfter p . cycle . (x:) -} segmentAfter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentAfter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentAfter a -> Bool p = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]])) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [a] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x ~([a] y,[[a]] ys) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]])) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ if a -> Bool p a x then ([],[a] y[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] ys) else ([a] y,[[a]] ys)) ([],[]) segmentAfter' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentAfter' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentAfter' a -> Bool p = (a -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\ a x ~yt :: [[a]] yt@([a] y:[[a]] ys) -> if a -> Bool p a x then [a x][a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] yt else (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y)[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] ys) [[]] {- | Split the list before each occurence of a leading character. Keep these characters. There is always a list for the part before the first leading character. It may be empty. See package @non-empty@ for more precise result type. prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> concat (segmentBefore p xs) == xs prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> length (filter p xs) == length (tail (segmentBefore p xs)) prop> forAllPredicates $ \p -> all (p . head) . tail . segmentBefore p prop> forAllPredicates $ \p -> all (all (not . p) . tail) . tail . segmentBefore p prop> forAllPredicates $ \p x -> flip seq True . (!!100) . concat . segmentBefore p . cycle . (x:) -} segmentBefore :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentBefore :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentBefore a -> Bool p = -- foldr (\ x ~(y:ys) -> (if p x then ([]:) else id) ((x:y):ys)) [[]] ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]])) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [a] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\ a x ~([a] y,[[a]] ys) -> let xs :: [a] xs = a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y in if a -> Bool p a x then ([],[a] xs[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] ys) else ([a] xs,[[a]] ys)) ([],[]) -- | prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> segmentBefore p xs == segmentBefore' p xs segmentBefore' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentBefore' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentBefore' a -> Bool p = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (\[[a]] xst -> ([a], [[a]]) -> Maybe ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) forall a. a -> Maybe a -> a fromMaybe ([],[[a]] xst) (Maybe ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]])) -> Maybe ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ do ((a x:[a] xs):[[a]] xss) <- [[a]] -> Maybe [[a]] forall a. a -> Maybe a Just [[a]] xst Bool -> Maybe () forall (f :: * -> *). Alternative f => Bool -> f () guard (Bool -> Maybe ()) -> Bool -> Maybe () forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> Bool -> Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ a -> Bool p a x ([a], [[a]]) -> Maybe ([a], [[a]]) forall (m :: * -> *) a. Monad m => a -> m a return (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] xs, [[a]] xss)) ([[a]] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy (\a _ a x -> Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> Bool -> Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ a -> Bool p a x) -- | prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> segmentBefore p xs == segmentBefore'' p xs segmentBefore'' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentBefore'' :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] segmentBefore'' a -> Bool p = (\[[a]] xst -> case [[a]] xst of ~([a] xs:[[a]] xss) -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail [a] xs [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[a]] xss) ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [[a]] groupBy (\a _ a x -> Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> Bool -> Bool forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ a -> Bool p a x) ([a] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([Char] -> a forall a. HasCallStack => [Char] -> a error [Char] "segmentBefore: dummy element" a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) {- | >>> segmentBeforeJust (\c -> toMaybe (isLetter c) (toUpper c)) "123a5345b---" ("123",[('A',"5345"),('B',"---")]) -} segmentBeforeJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) segmentBeforeJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) segmentBeforeJust a -> Maybe b f = ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> [a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> [a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\ a x ~([a] y,[(b, [a])] ys) -> case a -> Maybe b f a x of Just b b -> ([],(b b,[a] y)(b, [a]) -> [(b, [a])] -> [(b, [a])] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[(b, [a])] ys) Maybe b Nothing -> (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y,[(b, [a])] ys)) ([],[]) {- | >>> segmentAfterJust (\c -> toMaybe (isLetter c) (toUpper c)) "123a5345b---" ([("123",'A'),("5345",'B')],"---") -} segmentAfterJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([([a], b)], [a]) segmentAfterJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([([a], b)], [a]) segmentAfterJust a -> Maybe b f = ([a], [([a], b)]) -> ([([a], b)], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (b, a) swap (([a], [([a], b)]) -> ([([a], b)], [a])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [([a], b)])) -> [a] -> ([([a], b)], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [(b, [a])] -> ([a], [([a], b)])) -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [([a], b)]) forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (([a] -> (b, [a]) -> ([a], ([a], b))) -> [a] -> [(b, [a])] -> ([a], [([a], b)]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b c. Traversable t => (a -> b -> (a, c)) -> a -> t b -> (a, t c) mapAccumL (\[a] as0 (b b,[a] as1) -> ([a] as1, ([a] as0,b b)))) (([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [([a], b)])) -> ([a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> [a] -> ([a], [([a], b)]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall a b. (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) segmentBeforeJust a -> Maybe b f {- | >>> segmentBeforeRight [Left 'a', Right LT, Right GT, Left 'b'] ("a",[(LT,""),(GT,"b")]) prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> segmentBeforeJust f xs == segmentBeforeRight (map (\x -> maybe (Left x) Right (f x)) xs) -} segmentBeforeRight :: [Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) segmentBeforeRight :: [Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) segmentBeforeRight = ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> ([Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> [Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (Either a b -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> [Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\ Either a b x ~([a] y,[(b, [a])] ys) -> case Either a b x of Right b b -> ([],(b b,[a] y)(b, [a]) -> [(b, [a])] -> [(b, [a])] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[(b, [a])] ys) Left a a -> (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y,[(b, [a])] ys)) ([],[]) {- | >>> segmentAfterRight [Left 'a', Right LT, Right GT, Left 'b'] ([("a",LT),("",GT)],"b") prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> segmentAfterJust f xs == segmentAfterRight (map (\x -> maybe (Left x) Right (f x)) xs) -} segmentAfterRight :: [Either a b] -> ([([a], b)], [a]) segmentAfterRight :: [Either a b] -> ([([a], b)], [a]) segmentAfterRight = ([a], [([a], b)]) -> ([([a], b)], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (b, a) swap (([a], [([a], b)]) -> ([([a], b)], [a])) -> ([Either a b] -> ([a], [([a], b)])) -> [Either a b] -> ([([a], b)], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [(b, [a])] -> ([a], [([a], b)])) -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [([a], b)]) forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (([a] -> (b, [a]) -> ([a], ([a], b))) -> [a] -> [(b, [a])] -> ([a], [([a], b)]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b c. Traversable t => (a -> b -> (a, c)) -> a -> t b -> (a, t c) mapAccumL (\[a] as0 (b b,[a] as1) -> ([a] as1, ([a] as0,b b)))) (([a], [(b, [a])]) -> ([a], [([a], b)])) -> ([Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])])) -> [Either a b] -> ([a], [([a], b)]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) forall a b. [Either a b] -> ([a], [(b, [a])]) segmentBeforeRight -- cf. Matroid.hs {- | @removeEach xs@ represents a list of sublists of @xs@, where each element of @xs@ is removed and the removed element is separated. It seems to be much simpler to achieve with @zip xs (map (flip List.delete xs) xs)@, but the implementation of 'removeEach' does not need the 'Eq' instance and thus can also be used for lists of functions. See also the proposal <http://www.haskell.org/pipermail/libraries/2008-February/009270.html> >>> removeEach "abc" [('a',"bc"),('b',"ac"),('c',"ab")] >>> removeEach "a" [('a',"")] >>> removeEach "" [] -} removeEach :: [a] -> [(a, [a])] removeEach :: [a] -> [(a, [a])] removeEach = (([a], a, [a]) -> (a, [a])) -> [([a], a, [a])] -> [(a, [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (\([a] ys, a pivot, [a] zs) -> (a pivot,[a] ys[a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++[a] zs)) ([([a], a, [a])] -> [(a, [a])]) -> ([a] -> [([a], a, [a])]) -> [a] -> [(a, [a])] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> [([a], a, [a])] forall a. [a] -> [([a], a, [a])] splitEverywhere {- | >>> splitEverywhere "abc" [("",'a',"bc"),("a",'b',"c"),("ab",'c',"")] >>> splitEverywhere "a" [("",'a',"")] >>> splitEverywhere "" [] -} splitEverywhere :: [a] -> [([a], a, [a])] splitEverywhere :: [a] -> [([a], a, [a])] splitEverywhere [a] xs = (([a], [a]) -> ([a], a, [a])) -> [([a], [a])] -> [([a], a, [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (\([a] y, [a] zs0) -> case [a] zs0 of a z:[a] zs -> ([a] y,a z,[a] zs) [] -> [Char] -> ([a], a, [a]) forall a. HasCallStack => [Char] -> a error [Char] "splitEverywhere: empty list") ([([a], [a])] -> [([a], [a])] forall a. [a] -> [a] init ([[a]] -> [[a]] -> [([a], [a])] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] zip ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] inits [a] xs) ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] xs))) -- * inspect ends of a list {-# DEPRECATED splitLast "use viewR instead" #-} {- | It holds @splitLast xs == (init xs, last xs)@, but 'splitLast' is more efficient if the last element is accessed after the initial ones, because it avoids memoizing list. prop> \(NonEmpty xs) -> splitLast (xs::String) == (init xs, last xs) -} splitLast :: [a] -> ([a], a) splitLast :: [a] -> ([a], a) splitLast [] = [Char] -> ([a], a) forall a. HasCallStack => [Char] -> a error [Char] "splitLast: empty list" splitLast [a x] = ([], a x) splitLast (a x:[a] xs) = let ([a] xs', a lastx) = [a] -> ([a], a) forall a. [a] -> ([a], a) splitLast [a] xs in (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] xs', a lastx) {- | Should be prefered to 'head' and 'tail'. -} {-# INLINE viewL #-} viewL :: [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL :: [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL (a x:[a] xs) = (a, [a]) -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. a -> Maybe a Just (a x,[a] xs) viewL [] = Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. Maybe a Nothing {- | Should be prefered to 'init' and 'last'. prop> \xs -> maybe True ((init xs, last xs) == ) (viewR (xs::String)) -} viewR :: [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) viewR :: [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) viewR = (a -> Maybe ([a], a) -> Maybe ([a], a)) -> Maybe ([a], a) -> [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x -> ([a], a) -> Maybe ([a], a) forall a. a -> Maybe a Just (([a], a) -> Maybe ([a], a)) -> (Maybe ([a], a) -> ([a], a)) -> Maybe ([a], a) -> Maybe ([a], a) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a], a) -> ([a], a) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], a) -> ([a], a)) -> (Maybe ([a], a) -> ([a], a)) -> Maybe ([a], a) -> ([a], a) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a], a) -> (([a], a) -> ([a], a)) -> Maybe ([a], a) -> ([a], a) forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe ([],a x) (([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], a) -> ([a], a) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :))) Maybe ([a], a) forall a. Maybe a Nothing {- | Should be prefered to 'head' and 'tail'. -} {-# INLINE switchL #-} switchL :: b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL :: b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL b n a -> [a] -> b _ [] = b n switchL b _ a -> [a] -> b j (a x:[a] xs) = a -> [a] -> b j a x [a] xs switchL' :: b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL' :: b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL' b n a -> [a] -> b j = b -> ((a, [a]) -> b) -> Maybe (a, [a]) -> b forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe b n ((a -> [a] -> b) -> (a, [a]) -> b forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry a -> [a] -> b j) (Maybe (a, [a]) -> b) -> ([a] -> Maybe (a, [a])) -> [a] -> b forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL {- | Should be prefered to 'init' and 'last'. prop> \xs -> switchR True (\ixs lxs -> ixs == init xs && lxs == last xs) (xs::String) -} {-# INLINE switchR #-} switchR :: b -> ([a] -> a -> b) -> [a] -> b switchR :: b -> ([a] -> a -> b) -> [a] -> b switchR b n [a] -> a -> b j = b -> (([a], a) -> b) -> Maybe ([a], a) -> b forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe b n (([a] -> a -> b) -> ([a], a) -> b forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry [a] -> a -> b j) (Maybe ([a], a) -> b) -> ([a] -> Maybe ([a], a)) -> [a] -> b forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) forall a. [a] -> Maybe ([a], a) viewR -- * List processing starting at the end {- | @takeRev n@ is like @reverse . take n . reverse@ but it is lazy enough to work for infinite lists, too. prop> \n xs -> takeRev n (xs::String) == reverse (take n (reverse xs)) -} takeRev :: Int -> [a] -> [a] takeRev :: Int -> [a] -> [a] takeRev Int n [a] xs = [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> [a] Match.drop (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n [a] xs) [a] xs {- | @dropRev n@ is like @reverse . drop n . reverse@ but it is lazy enough to work for infinite lists, too. prop> \n xs -> dropRev n (xs::String) == reverse (drop n (reverse xs)) -} dropRev :: Int -> [a] -> [a] dropRev :: Int -> [a] -> [a] dropRev Int n [a] xs = [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> [a] Match.take (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n [a] xs) [a] xs {- | @splitAtRev n xs == (dropRev n xs, takeRev n xs)@. prop> \n xs -> splitAtRev n (xs::String) == (dropRev n xs, takeRev n xs) prop> \n xs -> (xs::String) == uncurry (++) (splitAtRev n xs) -} splitAtRev :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) splitAtRev :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) splitAtRev Int n [a] xs = [a] -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) Match.splitAt (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n [a] xs) [a] xs -- * List processing with Maybe and Either {- | @maybePrefixOf xs ys@ is @Just zs@ if @xs@ is a prefix of @ys@, where @zs@ is @ys@ without the prefix @xs@. Otherwise it is @Nothing@. It is the same as 'Data.List.stripPrefix'. >>> maybePrefixOf "abc" "abcdef" Just "def" >>> maybePrefixOf "def" "abcdef" Nothing -} maybePrefixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf :: [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf (a x:[a] xs) (a y:[a] ys) = Bool -> Maybe () forall (f :: * -> *). Alternative f => Bool -> f () guard (a xa -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool ==a y) Maybe () -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall (m :: * -> *) a b. Monad m => m a -> m b -> m b >> [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf [a] xs [a] ys maybePrefixOf [] [a] ys = [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a Just [a] ys maybePrefixOf [a] _ [] = Maybe [a] forall a. Maybe a Nothing {- | >>> maybeSuffixOf "abc" "abcdef" Nothing >>> maybeSuffixOf "def" "abcdef" Just "abc" -} maybeSuffixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybeSuffixOf :: [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybeSuffixOf [a] xs [a] ys = ([a] -> [a]) -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b fmap [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse (Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a]) -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [a] xs) ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse [a] ys) {- | Partition a list into elements which evaluate to @Just@ or @Nothing@ by @f@. prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> partitionMaybe f xs == (mapMaybe f xs, filter (isNothing . f) xs) prop> forAllPredicates $ \p xs -> partition p xs == partitionMaybe (\x -> toMaybe (p x) x) xs -} partitionMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([b], [a]) partitionMaybe :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([b], [a]) partitionMaybe a -> Maybe b f = ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a])) -> ([a] -> ([b], [a])) -> [a] -> ([b], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a])) -> ([b], [a]) -> [a] -> ([b], [a]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x -> (([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a])) -> (b -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a])) -> Maybe b -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a]) forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe (([a] -> [a]) -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) mapSnd (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :)) (\b y -> ([b] -> [b]) -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (b yb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :)) (a -> Maybe b f a x)) ([],[]) {- | This is the cousin of 'takeWhile' analogously to 'catMaybes' being the cousin of 'filter'. >>> takeWhileJust [Just 'a', Just 'b', Nothing, Just 'c'] "ab" Example: Keep the heads of sublists until an empty list occurs. >>> takeWhileJust $ map (fmap fst . viewL) ["abc","def","","xyz"] "ad" For consistency with 'takeWhile', 'partitionMaybe' and 'dropWhileNothing' it should have been: > takeWhileJust_ :: (a -> Maybe b) -> a -> [b] However, both variants are interchangeable: > takeWhileJust_ f == takeWhileJust . map f > takeWhileJust == takeWhileJust_ id -} takeWhileJust :: [Maybe a] -> [a] takeWhileJust :: [Maybe a] -> [a] takeWhileJust = (Maybe a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [Maybe a] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\Maybe a x [a] acc -> [a] -> (a -> [a]) -> Maybe a -> [a] forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe [] (a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] acc) Maybe a x) [] dropWhileNothing :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) dropWhileNothing :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) dropWhileNothing a -> Maybe b f = [Maybe (b, [a])] -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a. (Foldable t, MonadPlus m) => t (m a) -> m a msum ([Maybe (b, [a])] -> Maybe (b, [a])) -> ([a] -> [Maybe (b, [a])]) -> [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> Maybe (b, [a])) -> [[a]] -> [Maybe (b, [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map ((a -> Maybe b) -> (a, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall (f :: * -> *) a c b. Functor f => (a -> f c) -> (a, b) -> f (c, b) Func.mapFst a -> Maybe b f ((a, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a])) -> ([a] -> Maybe (a, [a])) -> [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall (m :: * -> *) b c a. Monad m => (b -> m c) -> (a -> m b) -> a -> m c <=< [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL) ([[a]] -> [Maybe (b, [a])]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [Maybe (b, [a])] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails -- | prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> dropWhileNothing f xs == dropWhileNothingRec f xs dropWhileNothingRec :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) dropWhileNothingRec :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) dropWhileNothingRec a -> Maybe b f = let go :: [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) go [] = Maybe (b, [a]) forall a. Maybe a Nothing go (a a:[a] xs) = ((b -> [a] -> (b, [a])) -> [a] -> b -> (b, [a]) forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip (,) [a] xs (b -> (b, [a])) -> Maybe b -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <$> a -> Maybe b f a a) Maybe (b, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall (m :: * -> *) a. MonadPlus m => m a -> m a -> m a `mplus` [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) go [a] xs in [a] -> Maybe (b, [a]) go -- | prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> snd (breakJust f xs) == dropWhileNothing f xs breakJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) breakJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) breakJust a -> Maybe b f = let go :: [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) go [] = ([], Maybe (b, [a]) forall a. Maybe a Nothing) go (a a:[a] xs) = case a -> Maybe b f a a of Maybe b Nothing -> ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([a], Maybe (b, [a])) -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a]))) -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) go [a] xs Just b b -> ([], (b, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall a. a -> Maybe a Just (b b, [a] xs)) in [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) go -- memory leak, because xs is hold all the time -- | prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> breakJust f xs == breakJustRemoveEach f xs breakJustRemoveEach :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) breakJustRemoveEach :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) breakJustRemoveEach a -> Maybe b f [a] xs = ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) -> (([a], Maybe (b, [a])) -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a]))) -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) forall b a. b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL ([a] xs, Maybe (b, [a]) forall a. Maybe a Nothing) ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) forall a b. a -> b -> a const ([([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a]))) -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ (([a], a, [a]) -> Maybe ([a], Maybe (b, [a]))) -> [([a], a, [a])] -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] forall a b. (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b] mapMaybe (\([a] ys,a a,[a] zs) -> (\b b -> ([a] ys, (b, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall a. a -> Maybe a Just (b b,[a] zs))) (b -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a]))) -> Maybe b -> Maybe ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <$> a -> Maybe b f a a) ([([a], a, [a])] -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))]) -> [([a], a, [a])] -> [([a], Maybe (b, [a]))] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [([a], a, [a])] forall a. [a] -> [([a], a, [a])] splitEverywhere [a] xs -- needs to apply 'f' twice at the end and uses partial functions -- | prop> forAllMaybeFn $ \f xs -> breakJust f xs == breakJustPartial f xs breakJustPartial :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) breakJustPartial :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([a], Maybe (b, [a])) breakJustPartial a -> Maybe b f [a] xs = let ([a] ys,[a] zs) = (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) break (Maybe b -> Bool forall a. Maybe a -> Bool isJust (Maybe b -> Bool) -> (a -> Maybe b) -> a -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . a -> Maybe b f) [a] xs in ([a] ys, (a -> b) -> (a, [a]) -> (b, [a]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (b -> (b -> b) -> Maybe b -> b forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe ([Char] -> b forall a. HasCallStack => [Char] -> a error [Char] "breakJust: unexpected Nothing") b -> b forall a. a -> a id (Maybe b -> b) -> (a -> Maybe b) -> a -> b forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . a -> Maybe b f) ((a, [a]) -> (b, [a])) -> Maybe (a, [a]) -> Maybe (b, [a]) forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <$> [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL [a] zs) spanJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([b], [a]) spanJust :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> ([b], [a]) spanJust a -> Maybe b f = let go :: [a] -> ([b], [a]) go [] = ([], []) go xt :: [a] xt@(a a:[a] xs) = case a -> Maybe b f a a of Just b b -> ([b] -> [b]) -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (b bb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a])) -> ([b], [a]) -> ([b], [a]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> ([b], [a]) go [a] xs Maybe b Nothing -> ([], [a] xt) in [a] -> ([b], [a]) go unzipEithers :: [Either a b] -> ([a], [b]) unzipEithers :: [Either a b] -> ([a], [b]) unzipEithers = ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b])) -> ([Either a b] -> ([a], [b])) -> [Either a b] -> ([a], [b]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (Either a b -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b])) -> ([a], [b]) -> [Either a b] -> ([a], [b]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr ((a -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b])) -> (b -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b])) -> Either a b -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c either (\a x -> ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :)) (\b y -> ([b] -> [b]) -> ([a], [b]) -> ([a], [b]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) mapSnd (b yb -> [b] -> [b] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :))) ([],[]) -- * Sieve and slice {- | keep every k-th value from the list >>> sieve 6 ['a'..'z'] "agmsy" -} sieve, sieve', sieve'', sieve''' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] sieve :: Int -> [a] -> [a] sieve Int k = ([a] -> Maybe (a, [a])) -> [a] -> [a] forall b a. (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] unfoldr (\[a] xs -> Bool -> (a, [a]) -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. Bool -> a -> Maybe a toMaybe (Bool -> Bool not ([a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [a] xs)) ([a] -> a forall a. [a] -> a head [a] xs, Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int k [a] xs)) -- | prop> \(Positive n) xs -> sieve n xs == sieve' n (xs::String) sieve' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] sieve' Int k = ([a] -> a) -> [[a]] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map [a] -> a forall a. [a] -> a head ([[a]] -> [a]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Int -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceVertical Int k -- | prop> \(Positive n) xs -> sieve n xs == sieve'' n (xs::String) sieve'' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] sieve'' Int k [a] x = (Int -> a) -> [Int] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map ([a] x[a] -> Int -> a forall a. [a] -> Int -> a !!) [Int 0,Int k..([a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length [a] xInt -> Int -> Int forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -Int 1)] -- | prop> \(Positive n) xs -> sieve n xs == sieve''' n (xs::String) sieve''' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] sieve''' Int k = ([a] -> a) -> [[a]] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map [a] -> a forall a. [a] -> a head ([[a]] -> [a]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeWhile (Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> ([a] -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null) ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int k) {- sliceHorizontal is faster than sliceHorizontal' but consumes slightly more memory (although it needs no swapping) -} {- | >>> sliceHorizontal 6 ['a'..'z'] ["agmsy","bhntz","ciou","djpv","ekqw","flrx"] prop> \(NonEmpty xs) -> QC.forAll (QC.choose (1, length xs)) $ \n -> sliceHorizontal n xs == transpose (sliceVertical n (xs::String)) prop> \(NonEmpty xs) -> QC.forAll (QC.choose (1, length xs)) $ \n -> sliceVertical n xs == transpose (sliceHorizontal n (xs::String)) The properties do not hold for empty lists because of: >>> sliceHorizontal 4 ([]::[Int]) [[],[],[],[]] -} sliceHorizontal, sliceHorizontal', sliceHorizontal'', sliceHorizontal''' :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceHorizontal :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceHorizontal Int n = ([a] -> [a]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] sieve Int n) ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Int -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] take Int n ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int 1) -- | prop> \(NonNegative n) xs -> sliceHorizontal n xs == sliceHorizontal' n (xs::String) sliceHorizontal' :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceHorizontal' Int n = (a -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x [[a]] ys -> let y :: [a] y = [[a]] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> a last [[a]] ys in [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> [a] Match.take [[a]] ys ((a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y)[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[[a]] ys)) (Int -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. Int -> a -> [a] replicate Int n []) -- | prop> \(Positive n) xs -> sliceHorizontal n xs == sliceHorizontal'' n (xs::String) sliceHorizontal'' :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceHorizontal'' Int n = [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [a] reverse ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [a] -> [[a]] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x ~([a] y:[[a]] ys) -> [[a]] ys [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y]) (Int -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. Int -> a -> [a] replicate Int n []) sliceHorizontal''' :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceHorizontal''' Int n = Int -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] take Int n ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] transpose ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeWhile (Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> ([a] -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null) ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n) {- | >>> sliceVertical 6 ['a'..'z'] ["abcdef","ghijkl","mnopqr","stuvwx","yz"] -} sliceVertical, sliceVertical' :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceVertical :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceVertical Int n = ([a] -> [a]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] take Int n) ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeWhile (Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> ([a] -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null) ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n) {- takeWhile must be performed before (map take) in order to handle (n==0) correctly -} -- | prop> \(NonNegative n) xs -> equating (take 100000) (sliceVertical n xs) (sliceVertical' n (xs::String)) sliceVertical' :: Int -> [a] -> [[a]] sliceVertical' Int n = ([a] -> Maybe ([a], [a])) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall b a. (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] unfoldr (\[a] x -> Bool -> ([a], [a]) -> Maybe ([a], [a]) forall a. Bool -> a -> Maybe a toMaybe (Bool -> Bool not ([a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [a] x)) (Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) splitAt Int n [a] x)) -- * Search&replace search :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [Int] search :: [a] -> [a] -> [Int] search [a] sub [a] str = ([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> [Int] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Int] findIndices ([a] -> [a] -> Bool forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf [a] sub) ([a] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] tails [a] str) {- | prop> \(NonEmpty xs) ys -> replace xs xs ys == (ys::String) prop> \(NonEmpty xs) (NonEmpty ys) -> equating (take 1000) (replace xs ys (cycle xs)) (cycle (ys::String)) -} replace :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] replace :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] replace [a] src [a] dst = let recourse :: [a] -> [a] recourse [] = [] recourse str :: [a] str@(a s:[a] ss) = [a] -> Maybe [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a -> a fromMaybe (a s a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] recourse [a] ss) (([a] -> [a]) -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b fmap (([a] dst[a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++) ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> [a] recourse) (Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a]) -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf [a] src [a] str) in [a] -> [a] recourse markSublists :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [Maybe [a]] markSublists :: [a] -> [a] -> [Maybe [a]] markSublists [a] sub [a] ys = let ~([a] hd', [Maybe [a]] rest') = (a -> ([a], [Maybe [a]]) -> ([a], [Maybe [a]])) -> ([a], [Maybe [a]]) -> [a] -> ([a], [Maybe [a]]) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a c ~([a] hd, [Maybe [a]] rest) -> let xs :: [a] xs = a ca -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] hd in case [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf [a] sub [a] xs of Just [a] suffix -> ([], Maybe [a] forall a. Maybe a Nothing Maybe [a] -> [Maybe [a]] -> [Maybe [a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a Just [a] suffix Maybe [a] -> [Maybe [a]] -> [Maybe [a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [Maybe [a]] rest) Maybe [a] Nothing -> ([a] xs, [Maybe [a]] rest)) ([],[]) [a] ys in [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a Just [a] hd' Maybe [a] -> [Maybe [a]] -> [Maybe [a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [Maybe [a]] rest' replace' :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] replace' :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] replace' [a] src [a] dst [a] xs = (Maybe [a] -> [a]) -> [Maybe [a]] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap ([a] -> Maybe [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a -> a fromMaybe [a] dst) ([a] -> [a] -> [Maybe [a]] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [Maybe [a]] markSublists [a] src [a] xs) {- | This is slightly wrong, because it re-replaces things. That's also the reason for inefficiency: The replacing can go on only when subsequent replacements are finished. Thus this functiob fails on infinite lists. -} replace'' :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] replace'' :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] replace'' [a] src [a] dst = (a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a x [a] xs -> let y :: [a] y=a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] xs in if [a] -> [a] -> Bool forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf [a] src [a] y then [a] dst [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop ([a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length [a] src) [a] y else [a] y) [] {- | prop \src dst xs -> replace src dst xs == multiReplace [(src,dst)] (xs::String) -} multiReplace :: Eq a => [([a], [a])] -> [a] -> [a] multiReplace :: [([a], [a])] -> [a] -> [a] multiReplace [([a], [a])] dict = let recourse :: [a] -> [a] recourse [] = [] recourse str :: [a] str@(a s:[a] ss) = [a] -> Maybe [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> Maybe a -> a fromMaybe (a s a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] recourse [a] ss) ([Maybe [a]] -> Maybe [a] forall (t :: * -> *) (m :: * -> *) a. (Foldable t, MonadPlus m) => t (m a) -> m a msum ([Maybe [a]] -> Maybe [a]) -> [Maybe [a]] -> Maybe [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ (([a], [a]) -> Maybe [a]) -> [([a], [a])] -> [Maybe [a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (\([a] src,[a] dst) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b fmap (([a] dst[a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++) ([a] -> [a]) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> [a] recourse) (Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a]) -> Maybe [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Maybe [a] maybePrefixOf [a] src [a] str) [([a], [a])] dict) in [a] -> [a] recourse multiReplace' :: Eq a => [([a], [a])] -> [a] -> [a] multiReplace' :: [([a], [a])] -> [a] -> [a] multiReplace' [([a], [a])] dict = let recourse :: [a] -> [a] recourse [] = [] recourse str :: [a] str@(a s:[a] ss) = [a] -> (([a], [a]) -> [a]) -> Maybe ([a], [a]) -> [a] forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe (a s a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] recourse [a] ss) (\([a] src, [a] dst) -> [a] dst [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [a] -> [a] recourse ([a] -> [a] -> [a] forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> [a] Match.drop [a] src [a] str)) ((([a], [a]) -> Bool) -> [([a], [a])] -> Maybe ([a], [a]) forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Maybe a find (([a] -> [a] -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> Bool forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip [a] -> [a] -> Bool forall a. Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool isPrefixOf [a] str ([a] -> Bool) -> (([a], [a]) -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a], [a]) -> [a] forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst) [([a], [a])] dict) in [a] -> [a] recourse -- * Lists of lists {- | Transform > [[00,01,02,...], [[00], > [10,11,12,...], --> [10,01], > [20,21,22,...], [20,11,02], > ...] ...] With @concat . shear@ you can perform a Cantor diagonalization, that is an enumeration of all elements of the sub-lists where each element is reachable within a finite number of steps. It is also useful for polynomial multiplication (convolution). -} shear :: [[a]] -> [[a]] shear :: [[a]] -> [[a]] shear = ([Maybe a] -> [a]) -> [[Maybe a]] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map [Maybe a] -> [a] forall a. [Maybe a] -> [a] catMaybes ([[Maybe a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([[a]] -> [[Maybe a]]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [[Maybe a]] -> [[Maybe a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] shearTranspose ([[Maybe a]] -> [[Maybe a]]) -> ([[a]] -> [[Maybe a]]) -> [[a]] -> [[Maybe a]] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [[a]] -> [[Maybe a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[Maybe a]] transposeFill transposeFill :: [[a]] -> [[Maybe a]] transposeFill :: [[a]] -> [[Maybe a]] transposeFill = ([[a]] -> Maybe ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> [[a]] -> [[Maybe a]] forall b a. (b -> Maybe (a, b)) -> b -> [a] unfoldr (\[[a]] xs -> Bool -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> Maybe ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a. Bool -> a -> Maybe a toMaybe (Bool -> Bool not ([[a]] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [[a]] xs)) (([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) mapSnd (([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Rev.dropWhile [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null) (([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a. [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) unzipCons [[a]] xs)) unzipCons :: [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) unzipCons :: [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) unzipCons = [(Maybe a, [a])] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a b. [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) unzip ([(Maybe a, [a])] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> ([[a]] -> [(Maybe a, [a])]) -> [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a] -> (Maybe a, [a])) -> [[a]] -> [(Maybe a, [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map ((\Maybe (a, [a]) my -> (((a, [a]) -> a) -> Maybe (a, [a]) -> Maybe a forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b fmap (a, [a]) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst Maybe (a, [a]) my, [a] -> ((a, [a]) -> [a]) -> Maybe (a, [a]) -> [a] forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe [] (a, [a]) -> [a] forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd Maybe (a, [a]) my)) (Maybe (a, [a]) -> (Maybe a, [a])) -> ([a] -> Maybe (a, [a])) -> [a] -> (Maybe a, [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL) {- | It's somehow inverse to zipCons, but the difficult part is, that a trailing empty list on the right side is suppressed. -} unzipConsSkew :: [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) unzipConsSkew :: [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) unzipConsSkew = let aux :: [a] -> [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) aux [] [] = ([],[]) -- one empty list at the end will be removed aux [a] xs [[a]] ys = ([[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) mapSnd ([a] xs[a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) prep [[a]] ys prep :: [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) prep = ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a b. (a, b) -> (a, b) forcePair (([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> ([[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall b a. b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL ([],[]) (\[a] y [[a]] ys -> let my :: Maybe (a, [a]) my = [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) forall a. [a] -> Maybe (a, [a]) viewL [a] y in ([Maybe a] -> [Maybe a]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst (((a, [a]) -> a) -> Maybe (a, [a]) -> Maybe a forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b fmap (a, [a]) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst Maybe (a, [a]) my Maybe a -> [Maybe a] -> [Maybe a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) (([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]])) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) aux ([a] -> ((a, [a]) -> [a]) -> Maybe (a, [a]) -> [a] forall b a. b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b maybe [] (a, [a]) -> [a] forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd Maybe (a, [a]) my) [[a]] ys) in [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) forall a. [[a]] -> ([Maybe a], [[a]]) prep shear' :: [[a]] -> [[a]] shear' :: [[a]] -> [[a]] shear' xs :: [[a]] xs@([a] _:[[a]] _) = let ([a] y:[[a]] ys,[[a]] zs) = [([a], [a])] -> ([[a]], [[a]]) forall a b. [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) unzip (([a] -> ([a], [a])) -> [[a]] -> [([a], [a])] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) splitAt Int 1) [[a]] xs) zipConc :: [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipConc ([a] a:[[a]] as) ([a] b:[[a]] bs) = ([a] a[a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++[a] b) [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipConc [[a]] as [[a]] bs zipConc [] [[a]] bs = [[a]] bs zipConc [[a]] as [] = [[a]] as in [a] y [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipConc [[a]] ys ([[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [[a]] -> [[a]] shear' (([a] -> Bool) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] Rev.dropWhile [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null [[a]] zs)) {- Dropping trailing empty lists is necessary, otherwise finite lists are filled with empty lists. -} shear' [] = [] {- | Transform > [[00,01,02,...], [[00], > [10,11,12,...], --> [01,10], > [20,21,22,...], [02,11,20], > ...] ...] It's like 'shear' but the order of elements in the sub list is reversed. Its implementation seems to be more efficient than that of 'shear'. If the order does not matter, better choose 'shearTranspose'. prop> \xs -> shearTranspose xs == map reverse (shear (xs::[String])) -} shearTranspose :: [[a]] -> [[a]] shearTranspose :: [[a]] -> [[a]] shearTranspose = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> [[a]] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipConsSkew [] zipConsSkew :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipConsSkew :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipConsSkew [a] xt [[a]] yss = ([a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (:) (([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]]) -> ([a], [[a]]) -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ case [a] xt of a x:[a] xs -> ([a x], [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons [a] xs [[a]] yss) [] -> ([], [[a]] yss) {- | zipCons is like @zipWith (:)@ but it keeps lists which are too long This version works also for @zipCons something undefined@. -} zipCons :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons (a x:[a] xs) [[a]] yt = let ([a] y,[[a]] ys) = ([a], [[a]]) -> ([a] -> [[a]] -> ([a], [[a]])) -> [[a]] -> ([a], [[a]]) forall b a. b -> (a -> [a] -> b) -> [a] -> b switchL ([],[]) (,) [[a]] yt in (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y) [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons [a] xs [[a]] ys zipCons [] [[a]] ys = [[a]] ys -- | zipCons' is like @zipWith (:)@ but it keeps lists which are too long zipCons' :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons' :: [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons' (a x:[a] xs) ([a] y:[[a]] ys) = (a xa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[a] y) [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] forall a. [a] -> [[a]] -> [[a]] zipCons' [a] xs [[a]] ys zipCons' [] [[a]] ys = [[a]] ys zipCons' [a] xs [] = (a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [[a]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :[]) [a] xs {- | Operate on each combination of elements of the first and the second list. In contrast to the list instance of 'Monad.liftM2' it holds the results in a list of lists. prop> \xs ys -> let f x y = (x::Char,y::Int) in concat (outerProduct f xs ys) == liftM2 f xs ys -} outerProduct :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [[c]] outerProduct :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [[c]] outerProduct a -> b -> c f [a] xs [b] ys = (a -> [c]) -> [a] -> [[c]] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (((b -> c) -> [b] -> [c]) -> [b] -> (b -> c) -> [c] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip (b -> c) -> [b] -> [c] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map [b] ys ((b -> c) -> [c]) -> (a -> b -> c) -> a -> [c] forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . a -> b -> c f) [a] xs -- * Miscellaneous {- | Take while first predicate holds, then continue taking while second predicate holds, and so on. -} takeWhileMulti :: [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] takeWhileMulti :: [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] takeWhileMulti [] [a] _ = [] takeWhileMulti [a -> Bool] _ [] = [] takeWhileMulti aps :: [a -> Bool] aps@(a -> Bool p:[a -> Bool] ps) axs :: [a] axs@(a x:[a] xs) = if a -> Bool p a x then a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] takeWhileMulti [a -> Bool] aps [a] xs else [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] takeWhileMulti [a -> Bool] ps [a] axs {- | prop> \ys xs -> let ps = map (<=) ys in takeWhileMulti ps xs == takeWhileMulti' ps (xs::String) -} takeWhileMulti' :: [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] takeWhileMulti' :: [a -> Bool] -> [a] -> [a] takeWhileMulti' [a -> Bool] ps [a] xs = (([a], [a]) -> [a]) -> [([a], [a])] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap ([a], [a]) -> [a] forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst ([([a], [a])] -> [([a], [a])] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail ((([a], [a]) -> (a -> Bool) -> ([a], [a])) -> ([a], [a]) -> [a -> Bool] -> [([a], [a])] forall b a. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b] scanl (((a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])) -> [a] -> (a -> Bool) -> ([a], [a]) forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) span ([a] -> (a -> Bool) -> ([a], [a])) -> (([a], [a]) -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> (a -> Bool) -> ([a], [a]) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ([a], [a]) -> [a] forall a b. (a, b) -> b snd) ([a] forall a. HasCallStack => a undefined,[a] xs) [a -> Bool] ps)) {- Debug.QuickCheck.quickCheck (propTakeWhileMulti [(<0), (>0), odd, even, ((0::Int)==)]) -} {- | This is a combination of 'foldl'' and 'foldr' in the sense of 'propFoldl'r'. It is however more efficient because it avoids storing the whole input list as a result of sharing. -} foldl'r, foldl'rStrict, foldl'rNaive :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a,c)] -> (b,d) foldl'r :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) foldl'r b -> a -> b f b b0 c -> d -> d g d d0 = -- (\(k,d1) -> (k b0, d1)) . ((b -> b) -> b) -> (b -> b, d) -> (b, d) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst ((b -> b) -> b -> b forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $b b0) ((b -> b, d) -> (b, d)) -> ([(a, c)] -> (b -> b, d)) -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ((a, c) -> (b -> b, d) -> (b -> b, d)) -> (b -> b, d) -> [(a, c)] -> (b -> b, d) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\(a a,c c) ~(b -> b k,d d) -> (\b b -> b -> b k (b -> b) -> b -> b forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $! b -> a -> b f b b a a, c -> d -> d g c c d d)) (b -> b forall a. a -> a id,d d0) foldl'rStrict :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) foldl'rStrict b -> a -> b f b b0 c -> d -> d g d d0 = ((b -> b) -> b) -> (b -> b, d) -> (b, d) forall a c b. (a -> c) -> (a, b) -> (c, b) mapFst ((b -> b) -> b -> b forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $b b0) ((b -> b, d) -> (b, d)) -> ([(a, c)] -> (b -> b, d)) -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . ((a, c) -> (b -> b, d) -> (b -> b, d)) -> (b -> b, d) -> [(a, c)] -> (b -> b, d) forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\(a a,c c) ~(b -> b k,d d) -> ((,) ((b -> b) -> d -> (b -> b, d)) -> (b -> b) -> d -> (b -> b, d) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $! (\b b -> b -> b k (b -> b) -> b -> b forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $! b -> a -> b f b b a a)) (d -> (b -> b, d)) -> d -> (b -> b, d) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $! c -> d -> d g c c d d) (b -> b forall a. a -> a id,d d0) foldl'rNaive :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) foldl'rNaive b -> a -> b f b b c -> d -> d g d d [(a, c)] xs = ([a] -> b, [c] -> d) -> ([a], [c]) -> (b, d) forall a c b d. (a -> c, b -> d) -> (a, b) -> (c, d) mapPair ((b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b forall (t :: * -> *) b a. Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldl' b -> a -> b f b b, (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [c] -> d forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr c -> d -> d g d d) (([a], [c]) -> (b, d)) -> ([a], [c]) -> (b, d) forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [(a, c)] -> ([a], [c]) forall a b. [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) unzip [(a, c)] xs propFoldl'r :: (Eq b, Eq d) => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a,c)] -> Bool propFoldl'r :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> Bool propFoldl'r b -> a -> b f b b c -> d -> d g d d [(a, c)] xs = (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) forall b a c d. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) foldl'r b -> a -> b f b b c -> d -> d g d d [(a, c)] xs (b, d) -> (b, d) -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool == (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) forall b a c d. (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (c -> d -> d) -> d -> [(a, c)] -> (b, d) foldl'rNaive b -> a -> b f b b c -> d -> d g d d [(a, c)] xs {- The results in GHCi surprise: *List.HT> mapSnd last $ foldl'rNaive (+) (0::Integer) (:) "" $ replicate 1000000 (1,'a') (1000000,'a') (0.44 secs, 141032856 bytes) *List.HT> mapSnd last $ foldl'r (+) (0::Integer) (:) "" $ replicate 1000000 (1,'a') (1000000,'a') (2.64 secs, 237424948 bytes) -} {- Debug.QuickCheck.quickCheck (\b d -> propFoldl'r (+) (b::Int) (++) (d::[Int])) -} {- | >>> lengthAtLeast 0 "" True >>> lengthAtLeast 3 "ab" False >>> lengthAtLeast 3 "abc" True >>> lengthAtLeast 3 $ repeat 'a' True >>> lengthAtLeast 3 $ "abc" ++ undefined True prop> \n xs -> lengthAtLeast n (xs::String) == (length xs >= n) -} lengthAtLeast :: Int -> [a] -> Bool lengthAtLeast :: Int -> [a] -> Bool lengthAtLeast Int n = if Int nInt -> Int -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool <=Int 0 then Bool -> [a] -> Bool forall a b. a -> b -> a const Bool True else Bool -> Bool not (Bool -> Bool) -> ([a] -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null ([a] -> Bool) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop (Int nInt -> Int -> Int forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a -Int 1) {- | >>> lengthAtMost 0 "" True >>> lengthAtMost 3 "ab" True >>> lengthAtMost 3 "abc" True >>> lengthAtMost 3 "abcd" False >>> lengthAtMost 3 $ repeat 'a' False >>> lengthAtMost 3 $ "abcd" ++ undefined False prop> \n xs -> lengthAtMost n (xs::String) == (length xs <= n) -} lengthAtMost :: Int -> [a] -> Bool lengthAtMost :: Int -> [a] -> Bool lengthAtMost Int n = if Int nInt -> Int -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool <Int 0 then Bool -> [a] -> Bool forall a b. a -> b -> a const Bool False else [a] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Bool null ([a] -> Bool) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n {- | prop> \n xs -> lengthAtMost0 n (xs::String) == (length xs <= n) -} lengthAtMost0 :: Int -> [a] -> Bool lengthAtMost0 :: Int -> [a] -> Bool lengthAtMost0 Int n = (Int nInt -> Int -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool >=) (Int -> Bool) -> ([a] -> Int) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length ([a] -> Int) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> Int forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] take (Int nInt -> Int -> Int forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a +Int 1) {- Iterate until elements start to cycle. This implementation is inspired by Elements of Programming but I am still not satisfied where the iteration actually stops. -} iterateUntilCycle :: (Eq a) => (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateUntilCycle :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateUntilCycle a -> a f a a = let as :: [a] as = (a -> a) -> a -> [a] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate a -> a f a a in (a aa -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] :) ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ((a, a) -> a) -> [(a, a)] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a, a) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst ([(a, a)] -> [a]) -> [(a, a)] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ((a, a) -> Bool) -> [(a, a)] -> [(a, a)] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeWhile ((a -> a -> Bool) -> (a, a) -> Bool forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (/=)) ([(a, a)] -> [(a, a)]) -> [(a, a)] -> [(a, a)] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [a] -> [(a, a)] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] zip ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail [a] as) ((a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap (\a ai->[a ai,a ai]) [a] as) {- iterateUntilCycleQ :: (Eq a) => (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateUntilCycleQ f a = let as = tail $ iterate f a in (a:) $ map fst $ takeWhile (uncurry (/=)) $ zip as (downsample2 (tail as)) -} iterateUntilCycleP :: (Eq a) => (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateUntilCycleP :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateUntilCycleP a -> a f a a = let as :: [a] as = (a -> a) -> a -> [a] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate a -> a f a a in ((a, (a, a)) -> a) -> [(a, (a, a))] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a, (a, a)) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst ([(a, (a, a))] -> [a]) -> [(a, (a, a))] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ ((a, (a, a)) -> Bool) -> [(a, (a, a))] -> [(a, (a, a))] forall a. (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] takeWhile (\(a a1,(a a20,a a21)) -> a a1a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool /=a a20 Bool -> Bool -> Bool && a a1a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool /=a a21) ([(a, (a, a))] -> [(a, (a, a))]) -> [(a, (a, a))] -> [(a, (a, a))] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] -> [(a, a)] -> [(a, (a, a))] forall a b. [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] zip [a] as ([a] -> [(a, a)] forall t. [t] -> [(t, t)] pairs ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail [a] as)) pairs :: [t] -> [(t, t)] pairs :: [t] -> [(t, t)] pairs [] = [] pairs (t _:[]) = [Char] -> [(t, t)] forall a. HasCallStack => [Char] -> a error [Char] "pairs: odd number of elements" pairs (t x0:t x1:[t] xs) = (t x0,t x1) (t, t) -> [(t, t)] -> [(t, t)] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [t] -> [(t, t)] forall t. [t] -> [(t, t)] pairs [t] xs {- | rotate left -} rotate, rotate', rotate'' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] rotate :: Int -> [a] -> [a] rotate Int n [a] x = [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> [a] Match.take [a] x (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop (Int -> Int -> Int forall a. Integral a => a -> a -> a mod Int n ([a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length [a] x)) ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] cycle [a] x)) {- | more efficient implementation of rotate' prop> \(NonNegative n) (NonEmpty xs) -> rotate n xs == rotate' n (xs::String) -} rotate' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] rotate' Int n [a] x = ([a] -> [a] -> [a]) -> ([a], [a]) -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c uncurry (([a] -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c flip [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] (++)) (Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) forall a. Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) splitAt (Int -> Int -> Int forall a. Integral a => a -> a -> a mod Int n ([a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length [a] x)) [a] x) {- | prop> \(NonNegative n) xs -> rotate n xs == rotate'' n (xs::String) -} rotate'' :: Int -> [a] -> [a] rotate'' Int n [a] x = [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall b a. [b] -> [a] -> [a] Match.take [a] x (Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] drop Int n ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] cycle [a] x)) {- | Given two lists that are ordered (i.e. @p x y@ holds for subsequent @x@ and @y@) 'mergeBy' them into a list that is ordered, again. >>> mergeBy (<=) "agh" "begz" "abegghz" -} mergeBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] mergeBy :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] mergeBy = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] Key.mergeBy {- | >>> allEqual "aab" False >>> allEqual "aaa" True >>> allEqual "aa" True >>> allEqual "a" True >>> allEqual "" True -} allEqual :: Eq a => [a] -> Bool allEqual :: [a] -> Bool allEqual = [Bool] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *). Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool and ([Bool] -> Bool) -> ([a] -> [Bool]) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Bool] forall a b. (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] mapAdjacent a -> a -> Bool forall a. Eq a => a -> a -> Bool (==) {- | >>> isAscending "abc" True >>> isAscending "abb" True >>> isAscending "aba" False >>> isAscending "cba" False >>> isAscending "a" True >>> isAscending "" True -} isAscending :: (Ord a) => [a] -> Bool isAscending :: [a] -> Bool isAscending = [Bool] -> Bool forall (t :: * -> *). Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool and ([Bool] -> Bool) -> ([a] -> [Bool]) -> [a] -> Bool forall b c a. (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c . [a] -> [Bool] forall a. Ord a => [a] -> [Bool] isAscendingLazy isAscendingLazy :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [Bool] isAscendingLazy :: [a] -> [Bool] isAscendingLazy = (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [Bool] forall a b. (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] mapAdjacent a -> a -> Bool forall a. Ord a => a -> a -> Bool (<=) {- | This function combines every pair of neighbour elements in a list with a certain function. >>> mapAdjacent (<=) "" [] >>> mapAdjacent (<=) "a" [] >>> mapAdjacent (<=) "aba" [True,False] >>> mapAdjacent (,) "abc" [('a','b'),('b','c')] prop> \x xs -> mapAdjacent subtract (scanl (+) x xs) == (xs::[Integer]) -} mapAdjacent :: (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] mapAdjacent :: (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] mapAdjacent a -> a -> b f [a] xs = (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] -> [b] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] zipWith a -> a -> b f [a] xs ([a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail [a] xs) {- | <http://mail.haskell.org/libraries/2016-April/026912.html> prop> \xs -> mapAdjacent (,) xs == mapAdjacentPointfree (,) (xs::String) -} mapAdjacentPointfree :: (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] mapAdjacentPointfree :: (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] mapAdjacentPointfree a -> a -> b f = (a -> a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] -> [b] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] zipWith a -> a -> b f ([a] -> [a] -> [b]) -> ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [b] forall (f :: * -> *) a b. Applicative f => f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b <*> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] tail {- | >>> let f x y z = [x,y]++show(z::Int) in mapAdjacent1 f 'a' [('b',1), ('c',2), ('d',3)] ["ab1","bc2","cd3"] -} mapAdjacent1 :: (a -> a -> b -> c) -> a -> [(a,b)] -> [c] mapAdjacent1 :: (a -> a -> b -> c) -> a -> [(a, b)] -> [c] mapAdjacent1 a -> a -> b -> c f a a [(a, b)] xs = (a -> (a, b) -> c) -> [a] -> [(a, b)] -> [c] forall a b c. (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] zipWith (\a a0 (a a1,b b) -> a -> a -> b -> c f a a0 a a1 b b) (a a a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : ((a, b) -> a) -> [(a, b)] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a, b) -> a forall a b. (a, b) -> a fst [(a, b)] xs) [(a, b)] xs {- | Enumerate without Enum context. For Enum equivalent to enumFrom. >>> range 0 :: [Integer] [] >>> range 1 :: [Integer] [0] >>> range 8 :: [Integer] [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7] prop> \(NonNegative n) -> length (range n :: [Integer]) == n -} range :: Num a => Int -> [a] range :: Int -> [a] range Int n = Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] take Int n ((a -> a) -> a -> [a] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate (a -> a -> a forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a +a 1) a 0) {-# INLINE padLeft #-} padLeft :: a -> Int -> [a] -> [a] padLeft :: a -> Int -> [a] -> [a] padLeft a c Int n [a] xs = Int -> a -> [a] forall a. Int -> a -> [a] replicate (Int n Int -> Int -> Int forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a - [a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length [a] xs) a c [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ [a] xs {-# INLINE padRight #-} padRight, padRight1 :: a -> Int -> [a] -> [a] padRight :: a -> Int -> [a] -> [a] padRight a c Int n [a] xs = Int -> [a] -> [a] forall a. Int -> [a] -> [a] take Int n ([a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> a -> b $ [a] xs [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ a -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] repeat a c padRight1 :: a -> Int -> [a] -> [a] padRight1 a c Int n [a] xs = [a] xs [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] ++ Int -> a -> [a] forall a. Int -> a -> [a] replicate (Int n Int -> Int -> Int forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a - [a] -> Int forall (t :: * -> *) a. Foldable t => t a -> Int length [a] xs) a c {- | For an associative operation @op@ this computes @iterateAssociative op a = iterate (op a) a@ but it is even faster than @map (powerAssociative op a a) [0..]@ since it shares temporary results. The idea is: From the list @map (powerAssociative op a a) [0,(2*n)..]@ we compute the list @map (powerAssociative op a a) [0,n..]@, and iterate that until @n==1@. prop> \x -> equating (take 1000) (List.iterate (x+) x) (iterateAssociative (+) (x::Integer)) -} iterateAssociative :: (a -> a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateAssociative :: (a -> a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateAssociative a -> a -> a op a a = (a -> [a] -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b foldr (\a pow [a] xs -> a pow a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : (a -> [a]) -> [a] -> [a] forall (t :: * -> *) a b. Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] concatMap (\a x -> [a x, a -> a -> a op a x a pow]) [a] xs) [a] forall a. HasCallStack => a undefined ((a -> a) -> a -> [a] forall a. (a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterate (\a x -> a -> a -> a op a x a x) a a) {- | This is equal to 'iterateAssociative'. The idea is the following: The list we search is the fixpoint of the function: "Square all elements of the list, then spread it and fill the holes with successive numbers of their left neighbour." This also preserves log n applications per value. However it has a space leak, because for the value with index @n@ all elements starting at @div n 2@ must be kept. prop> \x -> equating (take 1000) (List.iterate (x+) x) (iterateLeaky (+) (x::Integer)) -} iterateLeaky :: (a -> a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateLeaky :: (a -> a -> a) -> a -> [a] iterateLeaky a -> a -> a op a x = let merge :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] merge (a a:[a] as) [a] b = a a a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] -> [a] merge [a] b [a] as merge [a] _ [a] _ = [Char] -> [a] forall a. HasCallStack => [Char] -> a error [Char] "iterateLeaky: an empty list cannot occur" sqrs :: [a] sqrs = (a -> a) -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (\a y -> a -> a -> a op a y a y) [a] z z :: [a] z = a x a -> [a] -> [a] forall a. a -> [a] -> [a] : [a] -> [a] -> [a] forall a. [a] -> [a] -> [a] merge [a] sqrs ((a -> a) -> [a] -> [a] forall a b. (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] map (a -> a -> a op a x) [a] sqrs) in [a] z