webdriver-0.8.5: a Haskell client for the Selenium WebDriver protocol

Safe HaskellNone




WebDriver sessions

newtype WD a Source #

A state monad for WebDriver commands.


WD (StateT WDSession IO a) 


Monad WD Source # 


(>>=) :: WD a -> (a -> WD b) -> WD b #

(>>) :: WD a -> WD b -> WD b #

return :: a -> WD a #

fail :: String -> WD a #

Functor WD Source # 


fmap :: (a -> b) -> WD a -> WD b #

(<$) :: a -> WD b -> WD a #

MonadFix WD Source # 


mfix :: (a -> WD a) -> WD a #

Applicative WD Source # 


pure :: a -> WD a #

(<*>) :: WD (a -> b) -> WD a -> WD b #

(*>) :: WD a -> WD b -> WD b #

(<*) :: WD a -> WD b -> WD a #

MonadIO WD Source # 


liftIO :: IO a -> WD a #

MonadThrow WD Source # 


throwM :: Exception e => e -> WD a #

MonadCatch WD Source # 


catch :: Exception e => WD a -> (e -> WD a) -> WD a #

WDSessionState WD Source # 
WebDriver WD Source # 


doCommand :: (ToJSON a, FromJSON b) => Method -> Text -> a -> WD b Source #

MonadBase IO WD Source # 


liftBase :: IO α -> WD α #

MonadBaseControl IO WD Source # 

Associated Types

type StM (WD :: * -> *) a :: * #


liftBaseWith :: (RunInBase WD IO -> IO a) -> WD a #

restoreM :: StM WD a -> WD a #

type StM WD a Source # 
type StM WD a = StM (StateT WDSession IO) a

data WDSession Source #

The local state of a WebDriver session. This structure is passed implicitly through all WD computations




newtype SessionId Source #

An opaque identifier for a WebDriver session. These handles are produced by the server on session creation, and act to identify a session in progress.


SessionId Text 

WebDriver configuration

data WDConfig Source #

WebDriver session configuration




defaultConfig :: WDConfig Source #

A default session config connects to localhost on port 4444, and hasn't been initialized server-side. This value is the same as def but with a less polymorphic type.

type SessionHistoryConfig = SessionHistory -> [SessionHistory] -> [SessionHistory] Source #

A function used by wdHistoryConfig to append new entries to session history.


data Capabilities Source #

A structure describing the capabilities of a session. This record serves dual roles.

  • It's used to specify the desired capabilities for a session before it's created. In this usage, fields that are set to Nothing indicate that we have no preference for that capability.
  • When received from the server , it's used to describe the actual capabilities given to us by the WebDriver server. Here a value of Nothing indicates that the server doesn't support the capability. Thus, for Maybe Bool fields, both Nothing and Just False indicate a lack of support for the desired capability.




defaultCaps :: Capabilities Source #

Default capabilities. This is the same as the Default instance, but with less polymorphism. By default, we use firefox of an unspecified version with default system-wide proxy settings on whatever platform is available . All Maybe capabilities are set to Nothing (no preference).

allCaps :: Capabilities Source #

Same as defaultCaps, but with all Maybe Bool capabilities set to Just True.

data ProxyType Source #

Available settings for the proxy Capabilities field



Use a proxy auto-config file specified by URL


Manually specify proxy hosts as hostname:port strings. Note that behavior is undefined for empty strings.

data UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source #


Bounded UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
Enum UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
Eq UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
Ord UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
Read UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
Show UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
ToJSON UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 
FromJSON UnexpectedAlertBehavior Source # 

Browser-specific capabilities

data Browser Source #

This constructor simultaneously specifies which browser the session will use, while also providing browser-specific configuration. Default configuration is provided for each browser by firefox, chrome, opera, ie, etc.

This library uses firefox as its Default browser configuration, when no browser choice is specified.








  • ieIgnoreProtectedModeSettings :: Bool

    Whether to skip the protected mode check. If set, tests may become flaky, unresponsive, or browsers may hang. If not set, and protected mode settings are not the same for all zones, an exception will be thrown on driver construction.

  • ieIgnoreZoomSetting :: Bool

    Indicates whether to skip the check that the browser's zoom level is set to 100%. Value is set to false by default.

  • ieInitialBrowserUrl :: Maybe Text

    Allows the user to specify the initial URL loaded when IE starts. Intended to be used with ignoreProtectedModeSettings to allow the user to initialize IE in the proper Protected Mode zone. Using this capability may cause browser instability or flaky and unresponsive code. Only "best effort" support is provided when using this capability.

  • ieElementScrollBehavior :: IEElementScrollBehavior

    Allows the user to specify whether elements are scrolled into the viewport for interaction to align with the top or bottom of the viewport. The default value is to align with the top of the viewport.

  • ieEnablePersistentHover :: Bool

    Determines whether persistent hovering is enabled (true by default). Persistent hovering is achieved by continuously firing mouse over events at the last location the mouse cursor has been moved to.

  • ieEnableElementCacheCleanup :: Bool

    Determines whether the driver should attempt to remove obsolete elements from the element cache on page navigation (true by default). This is to help manage the IE driver's memory footprint , removing references to invalid elements.

  • ieRequireWindowFocus :: Bool

    Determines whether to require that the IE window have focus before performing any user interaction operations (mouse or keyboard events). This capability is false by default, but delivers much more accurate native events interactions.

  • ieBrowserAttachTimeout :: Integer

    The timeout, in milliseconds, that the driver will attempt to locate and attach to a newly opened instance of Internet Explorer . The default is zero, which indicates waiting indefinitely.

  • ieLogFile :: Maybe FilePath

    The path to file where server should write log messages to. By default it writes to stdout.

  • ieLogLevel :: IELogLevel

    The log level used by the server. Defaults to IELogFatal

  • ieHost :: Maybe Text

    The address of the host adapter on which the server will listen for commands.

  • ieExtractPath :: Maybe Text

    The path to the directory used to extract supporting files used by the server. Defaults to the TEMP directory if not specified.

  • ieSilent :: Bool

    Suppresses diagnostic output when the server is started.

  • ieForceCreateProcess :: Bool

    Forces launching Internet Explorer using the CreateProcess API. If this option is not specified, IE is launched using the IELaunchURL, if it is available. For IE 8 and above, this option requires the TabProcGrowth registry value to be set to 0.

  • ieSwitches :: Maybe Text

    Specifies command-line switches with which to launch Internet Explorer. This is only valid when used with the forceCreateProcess.



  • operaBinary :: Maybe FilePath

    Server-side path to the Opera binary

  • operaProduct :: Maybe String

    Which Opera product we're using, e.g. "desktop", "core"

  • operaDetach :: Bool

    Whether the Opera instance should stay open after we close the session. If false, closing the session closes the browser.

  • operaAutoStart :: Bool

    Whether to auto-start the Opera binary. If false, OperaDriver will wait for a connection from the browser. By default this is True.

  • operaIdle :: Bool

    Whether to use Opera's alternative implicit wait implementation. It will use an in-browser heuristic to guess when a page has finished loading. This feature is experimental, and disabled by default.

  • operaDisplay :: Maybe Int

    (*nix only) which X display to use.

  • operaLauncher :: Maybe FilePath

    Path to the launcher binary to use. The launcher is a gateway between OperaDriver and the Opera browser. If Nothing, OperaDriver will use the launcher supplied with the package.

  • operaPort :: Maybe Word16

    The port we should use to connect to Opera. If Just 0 , use a random port. If Nothing, use the default Opera port. The default opera constructor uses Just 0, since Nothing is likely to cause "address already in use" errors.

  • operaHost :: Maybe String

    The host Opera should connect to. Unless you're starting Opera manually you won't need this.

  • operaOptions :: Maybe String

    Command-line arguments to pass to Opera.

  • operaLogFile :: Maybe FilePath

    Where to send the log output. If Nothing, logging is disabled.

  • operaLogPref :: LogLevel

    Log level preference. Defaults to LogInfo

Browser Text

some other browser, specified by a string name

Default settings for browsers

firefox :: Browser Source #

Default Firefox settings. All Maybe fields are set to Nothing. ffLogPref is set to LogInfo.

chrome :: Browser Source #

Default Chrome settings. All Maybe fields are set to Nothing, no options are specified, and no extensions are used.

ie :: Browser Source #

Default IE settings. See the IE constructor for more details on individual defaults

opera :: Browser Source #

Default Opera settings. See the Opera constructor for more details on individual defaults.

data LogLevel Source #

Indicates a log verbosity level. Used in Firefox and Opera configuration.

data IELogLevel Source #

Logging levels for Internet Explorer


Bounded IELogLevel Source # 
Enum IELogLevel Source # 
Eq IELogLevel Source # 
Ord IELogLevel Source # 
Read IELogLevel Source # 
Show IELogLevel Source # 
ToJSON IELogLevel Source # 
FromJSON IELogLevel Source # 
Default IELogLevel Source # 


def :: IELogLevel #

data IEElementScrollBehavior Source #

Specifies how elements scroll into the viewport. (see ieElementScrollBehavior)




Bounded IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
Enum IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
Eq IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
Ord IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
Read IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
Show IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
ToJSON IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
FromJSON IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 
Default IEElementScrollBehavior Source # 

WebDriver objects and command-specific types

currentWindow :: WindowHandle Source #

A special WindowHandle that always refers to the currently focused window. This is also used by the Default instance.

data Selector Source #

Specifies element(s) within a DOM tree using various selection methods.


ById Text 
ByName Text 
ByClass Text

(Note: multiple classes are not allowed. For more control, use ByCSS)

ByTag Text 
ByLinkText Text 
ByPartialLinkText Text 
ByCSS Text 
ByXPath Text 

data JSArg Source #

An existential wrapper for any ToJSON instance. This allows us to pass parameters of many different types to Javascript code.


ToJSON a => JSArg a 

data Cookie Source #

Cookies are delicious delicacies. When sending cookies to the server, a value of Nothing indicates that the server should use a default value. When receiving cookies from the server, a value of Nothing indicates that the server is unable to specify the value.




mkCookie :: Text -> Text -> Cookie Source #

Creates a Cookie with only a name and value specified. All other fields are set to Nothing, which tells the server to use default values.

data Orientation Source #

A screen orientation



data MouseButton Source #

A mouse button

data LogEntry Source #

A record that represents a single log entry.




data ApplicationCacheStatus Source #


Bounded ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 
Enum ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 
Eq ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 
Ord ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 
Read ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 
Show ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 
FromJSON ApplicationCacheStatus Source # 


newtype NoSessionId Source #

A command requiring a session ID was attempted when no session ID was available.


NoSessionId String 

newtype BadJSON Source #

An error occured when parsing a JSON value.


BadJSON String 

data FailedCommandType Source #

The type of failed command exception that occured.

data FailedCommandInfo Source #

Detailed information about the failed command provided by the server.





data StackFrame Source #

An individual stack frame from the stack trace provided by the server during a FailedCommand.

mkFailedCommandInfo :: WDSessionState s => String -> s FailedCommandInfo Source #

Constructs a FailedCommandInfo from only an error message.

failedCommand :: WDSessionStateIO s => FailedCommandType -> String -> s a Source #

Convenience function to throw a FailedCommand locally with no server-side info present.