Description

This is a draft of a brand new config syntax for xmonad. It aims to be:

• easier to copy/paste snippets from the docs
• easier to get the gist for what's going on, for you imperative programmers

It's brand new, so it's pretty much guaranteed to break or change syntax. But what's the worst that could happen? Xmonad crashes and logs you out? It probably won't do that. Give it a try.

Synopsis

# Start here

To start with, create a ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs that looks like this:

{-# LANGUAGE RebindableSyntax #-}

-- Imports go here.

main = xmonad $do nothing -- Configs go here. This will give you a default xmonad install, with room to grow. The lines starting with double dashes are comments. You may delete them. Note that Haskell is a bit precise about indentation. Make sure all the statements in your do-block start at the same column, and make sure that any multi-line statements are formatted with a hanging indent. (For an example, see the 'keys =+' statement in the Example config section, below.) After changing your config file, restart xmonad with mod-q (where, by default, "mod" == "alt"). xmonad :: (Default a, Read (l Window), LayoutClass l Window) => (a -> IO (XConfig l)) -> IO () Source # This is the xmonad main function. It passes def (the default XConfig) into your do-block, takes the modified config out of your do-block, and then runs xmonad. The do-block is a Prime. Advanced readers can skip right to that definition. nothing :: Prime l l Source # This doesn't modify the config in any way. It's just here for your initial config because Haskell doesn't allow empty do-blocks. Feel free to delete it once you've added other stuff. # Attributes you can set These are a bunch of attributes that you can set. Syntax looks like this:  terminal =: "urxvt" Strings are double quoted, Dimensions are unquoted integers, booleans are True or False (case-sensitive), and modMask is usually mod1Mask or mod4Mask. normalBorderColor :: Settable String (XConfig l) Source # Non-focused windows border color. Default: "#dddddd" focusedBorderColor :: Settable String (XConfig l) Source # Focused windows border color. Default: "#ff0000" terminal :: Settable String (XConfig l) Source # The preferred terminal application. Default: "xterm" modMask :: Settable KeyMask (XConfig l) Source # The mod modifier, as used by key bindings. Default: mod1Mask (which is probably alt on your computer). borderWidth :: Settable Dimension (XConfig l) Source # The border width (in pixels). Default: 1 focusFollowsMouse :: Settable Bool (XConfig l) Source # Whether window focus follows the mouse cursor on move, or requires a mouse click. (Mouse? What's that?) Default: True clickJustFocuses :: Settable Bool (XConfig l) Source # If True, a mouse click on an inactive window focuses it, but the click is not passed to the window. If False, the click is also passed to the window. Default True class SettableClass s x y | s -> x y where Source # Minimal complete definition (=:) Methods (=:) :: s c -> y -> Arr c c Source # This lets you modify an attribute. Instances  UpdateableClass s x y => SettableClass s x y Source # Methods(=:) :: s c -> y -> Arr c c Source # class UpdateableClass s x y | s -> x y where Source # Minimal complete definition (=.) Methods (=.) :: s c -> (x -> y) -> Arr c c Source # This lets you apply a function to an attribute (i.e. read, modify, write). # Attributes you can add to In addition to being able to set these attributes, they have a special syntax for being able to add to them. The operator is =+ (the plus comes after the equals), but each attribute has a different syntax for what comes after the operator. manageHook :: Summable ManageHook ManageHook (XConfig l) Source # The action to run when a new window is opened. Default:  manageHook =: composeAll [className =? "MPlayer" --> doFloat, className =? "Gimp" --> doFloat] To add more rules to this list, you can say, for instance: import XMonad.StackSet ... manageHook =+ (className =? "Emacs" --> doF kill) manageHook =+ (className =? "Vim" --> doF shiftMaster) Note that operator precedence mandates the parentheses here. handleEventHook :: Summable (Event -> X All) (Event -> X All) (XConfig l) Source # Custom X event handler. Return All True if the default handler should also be run afterwards. Default does nothing. To add an event handler: import XMonad.Hooks.ServerMode ... handleEventHook =+ serverModeEventHook workspaces :: Summable [String] [String] (XConfig l) Source # List of workspaces' names. Default: map show [1 .. 9 :: Int]. Adding appends to the end:  workspaces =+ ["0"] This is useless unless you also create keybindings for this. logHook :: Summable (X ()) (X ()) (XConfig l) Source # The action to perform when the windows set is changed. This happens whenever focus change, a window is moved, etc. logHook =+ takes an X () and appends it via '(>>)'. For instance: import XMonad.Hooks.ICCCMFocus ... logHook =+ takeTopFocus Note that if your expression is parametrically typed (e.g. of type MonadIO m => m ()), you'll need to explicitly annotate it, like so:  logHook =+ (io$ putStrLn "Hello, world!" :: X ())

startupHook :: Summable (X ()) (X ()) (XConfig l) Source #

The action to perform on startup. startupHook =+ takes an X () and appends it via '(>>)'. For instance:

import XMonad.Hooks.SetWMName
...
startupHook =+ setWMName "LG3D"

Note that if your expression is parametrically typed (e.g. of type MonadIO m => m ()), you'll need to explicitly annotate it, as documented in logHook.

The client events that xmonad is interested in. This is useful in combination with handleEventHook. Default: structureNotifyMask .|. enterWindowMask .|. propertyChangeMask

  clientMask =+ keyPressMask .|. keyReleaseMask

The root events that xmonad is interested in. This is useful in combination with handleEventHook. Default: substructureRedirectMask .|. substructureNotifyMask .|. enterWindowMask .|. leaveWindowMask .|. structureNotifyMask .|. buttonPressMask

class SummableClass s y | s -> y where Source #

Minimal complete definition

(=+)

Methods

(=+) :: s c -> y -> Arr c c infix 0 Source #

This lets you add to an attribute.

# Attributes you can add to or remove from

The following support the the =+ for adding items and the =- operator for removing items.

keys :: Keys (XConfig l) Source #

Key bindings to X actions. Default: see man xmonad. keys takes a list of keybindings specified emacs-style, as documented in mkKeyMap. For example, to change the "kill window" key:

  keys =- ["M-S-c"]
keys =+ [("M-M1-x", kill)]

mouseBindings :: MouseBindings (XConfig l) Source #

Mouse button bindings to an X actions on a window. Default: see man xmonad. To make mod-scrollwheel switch workspaces:

import XMonad.Actions.CycleWS (nextWS, prevWS)
...
mouseBindings =+ [((mod4Mask, button4), const prevWS),
((mod4Mask, button5), const nextWS)]

Note that you need to specify the numbered mod-mask e.g. mod4Mask instead of just modMask.

class RemovableClass r y | r -> y where Source #

Minimal complete definition

(=-)

Methods

(=-) :: r c -> y -> Arr c c infix 0 Source #

This lets you remove from an attribute.

# Modifying the list of workspaces

Workspaces can be configured through workspaces, but then the keys need to be set, and this can be a bit laborious. withWorkspaces provides a convenient mechanism for common workspace updates.

withWorkspaces :: Arr WorkspaceConfig WorkspaceConfig -> Prime l l Source #

Configure workspaces through a Prime-like interface. Example:

  withWorkspaces $do wsKeys =+ ["0"] wsActions =+ [("M-M1-", windows . swapWithCurrent)] wsSetName 1 "mail" This will set workspaces and add the necessary keybindings to keys. Note that it won't remove old keybindings; it's just not that clever. wsNames :: Settable [String] WorkspaceConfig Source # The list of workspace names, like workspaces but with two differences: 1. If any entry is the empty string, it'll be replaced with the corresponding entry in wsKeys. 2. The list is truncated to the size of wsKeys. The default value is repeat "". If you'd like to create workspaces without associated keyspecs, you can do that afterwards, outside the withWorkspaces block, with workspaces =+. wsKeys :: Summable [String] [String] WorkspaceConfig Source # The list of workspace keys. These are combined with the modifiers in wsActions to form the keybindings for navigating to workspaces. Default: ["1","2",...,"9"]. wsActions :: Summable [(String, String -> X ())] [(String, String -> X ())] WorkspaceConfig Source # Mapping from key prefix to command. Its type is [(String, String -> X())]. The key prefix may be a modifier such as "M-", or a submap prefix such as "M-a ", or both, as in "M-a M-". The command is a function that takes a workspace name and returns an X (). withWorkspaces creates keybindings for the cartesian product of wsKeys and wsActions. Default: [("M-", windows . W.greedyView), ("M-S-", windows . W.shift)] wsSetName :: Int -> String -> Arr WorkspaceConfig WorkspaceConfig Source # A convenience for just modifying one entry in wsNames, in case you only want a few named workspaces. Example:  wsSetName 1 "mail" wsSetName 2 "web" # Modifying the screen keybindings withScreens provides a convenient mechanism to set keybindings for moving between screens, much like withWorkspaces. withScreens :: Arr ScreenConfig ScreenConfig -> Prime l l Source # Configure screen keys through a Prime-like interface:  withScreens$ do
sKeys =: ["e", "r"]

This will add the necessary keybindings to keys. Note that it won't remove old keybindings; it's just not that clever.

sKeys :: Summable [String] [String] ScreenConfig Source #

The list of screen keys. These are combined with the modifiers in sActions to form the keybindings for navigating to workspaces. Default: ["w","e","r"].

sActions :: Summable [(String, ScreenId -> X ())] [(String, ScreenId -> X ())] ScreenConfig Source #

Mapping from key prefix to command. Its type is [(String, ScreenId -> X())]. Works the same as wsActions except for a different function type.

Default:

[("M-", windows . onScreens W.view),
("M-S-", windows . onScreens W.shift)]

onScreens :: Eq s => (i -> StackSet i l a s sd -> StackSet i l a s sd) -> s -> StackSet i l a s sd -> StackSet i l a s sd Source #

Converts a stackset transformer parameterized on the workspace type into one parameterized on the screen type. For example, you can use onScreens W.view 0 to navigate to the workspace on the 0th screen. If the screen id is not recognized, the returned transformer acts as an identity function.

# Modifying the layoutHook

Layouts are special. You can't modify them using the =: or =. operator. You need to use the following functions.

addLayout :: (LayoutClass l Window, LayoutClass r Window) => r Window -> Prime l (Choose l r) Source #

Add a layout to the list of layouts choosable with mod-space. For instance:

import XMonad.Layout.Tabbed
...
addLayout simpleTabbed

resetLayout :: LayoutClass r Window => r Window -> Prime l r Source #

Reset the layoutHook from scratch. For instance, to get rid of the wide layout:

  resetLayout $Tall 1 (3/100) (1/2) ||| Full (The dollar is like an auto-closing parenthesis, so all the stuff to the right of it is treated like an argument to resetLayout.) modifyLayout :: LayoutClass r Window => (l Window -> r Window) -> Prime l r Source # Modify your layoutHook with some wrapper function. You probably want to call this after you're done calling addLayout. Example: import XMonad.Layout.NoBorders ... modifyLayout smartBorders # Updating the XConfig en masse Finally, there are a few contrib modules that bundle multiple attribute updates together. There are three types: 1) wholesale replacements for the default config, 2) pure functions on the config, and 3) IO actions on the config. The syntax for each is different. Examples: 1) To start with a gnomeConfig instead of the default, we use startWith: import XMonad.Config.Gnome ... startWith gnomeConfig 2) withUrgencyHook is a pure function, so we need to use apply: import XMonad.Hooks.UrgencyHook ... apply$ withUrgencyHook dzenUrgencyHook

3) xmobar returns an IO (XConfig l), so we need to use applyIO:

import XMonad.Hooks.DynamicLog
...
applyIO xmobar

startWith :: XConfig l' -> Prime l l' Source #

Replace the current XConfig with the given one. If you use this, you probably want it to be the first line of your config.

apply :: (XConfig l -> XConfig l') -> Prime l l' Source #

Turns a pure function on XConfig into a Prime.

applyIO :: (XConfig l -> IO (XConfig l')) -> Prime l l' Source #

Turns an IO function on XConfig into a Prime.

# The rest of the world

Everything you know and love from the core XMonad module is available for use in your config file, too.

(Almost) everything you know and love from the Haskell Prelude is available for use in your config file. Note that >> has been overriden, so if you want to create do-blocks for normal monads, you'll need some let statements or a separate module. (See the Troubleshooting section.)

module Prelude

# Core

These are the building blocks on which the config language is built. Regular people shouldn't need to know about these.

type Prime l l' = Arr (XConfig l) (XConfig l') Source #

A Prime is a function that transforms an XConfig. It's not a monad, but we turn on RebindableSyntax so we can abuse the pretty do notation.

type Arr x y = x -> IO y Source #

An Arr is a generalization of Prime. Don't reference the type, if you can avoid it. It might go away in the future.

(>>) :: Arr x y -> Arr y z -> Arr x z Source #

Composes two Arrs using >>= from Prelude.

ifThenElse :: Bool -> a -> a -> a Source #

Because of RebindableSyntax, this is necessary to enable you to use if-then-else expressions. No need to call it directly.

# Example config

As an example, I've included below a subset of my current config. Note that my import statements specify individual identifiers in parentheticals. That's optional. The default is to import the entire module. I just find it helpful to remind me where things came from.

{-# LANGUAGE RebindableSyntax #-}

main = xmonad $do modMask =: mod4Mask normalBorderColor =: "#222222" terminal =: "urxvt" focusFollowsMouse =: False resetLayout$ Tall 1 (3/100) (1/2) ||| simpleTabbed
modifyLayout smartBorders
apply fullscreenSupport
applyIO $withWindowNavigation (xK_w, xK_a, xK_s, xK_d) withWorkspaces$ do
wsKeys =+ ["0"]
wsActions =+ [("M-M1-", windows . swapWithCurrent)]
keys =+ [
("M-,",                      sendMessage $IncMasterN (-1)), ("M-.", sendMessage$ IncMasterN 1),
("M-M1-d",                   spawn "date | dzen2 -fg '#eeeeee' -p 2"),
("C-S-q",                    return ()),
("<XF86AudioLowerVolume>",   spawn "amixer set Master 5%-"),
("<XF86AudioRaiseVolume>",   spawn "amixer set Master 5%+"),
("M-M1-x",                   kill),
("M-i",                      prevWS),
("M-o",                      nextWS)
]

# Troubleshooting

### Only the last line of my config seems to take effect. What gives?

You're missing the {-# LANGUAGE RebindableSyntax #-} line at the top.

### How do I do use normal monads like X or IO?

Here are a couple of ways:

import qualified Prelude as P
...
test1, test2 :: X ()
test1 = spawn "echo Hi" P.>> spawn "echo Bye"
test2 = do spawn "echo Hi"
spawn "echo Bye"
where (>>) = (P.>>)

### How do I use the old keyboard syntax?

You can use apply and supply your own Haskell function. For instance:

apply $flip additionalKeys$ [((mod1Mask, xK_z), spawn "date | dzen2 -fg '#eeeeee' -p 2")]

### How do I run a command before xmonad starts (like spawnPipe)?

If you're using it for a status bar, see if dzen or xmobar does what you want. If so, you can apply it with applyIO.

If not, you can write your own XConfig l -> IO (XConfig l) and apply it with applyIO. When writing this function, see the above tip about using normal monads.

Alternatively, you could do something like this this:

import qualified Prelude as P (>>)

main =
openFile ".xmonad.log" AppendMode >>= \log ->
hSetBuffering log LineBuffering P.>>
)