The logger package

[Tags:apache, library]

Logging is a fast and extensible Haskell logging framework.

Logging allows you to log any kind of messages in both IO as well as pure code, depending on the informations you want to log.

The framework bases on the idea of logger transformer stack defining the way it works. You can build your own stack to highly tailor the behaviour to your needs, starting with such simple things, like logging messages to a list, ending on logging compile-time, priority-filtered messages from different threads and gathering them in other logger thread.

For detailed documentation and examples look at the 'System.Log' module.


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Properties

Versions 0.1.0.0, 0.1.0.1, 0.1.0.2
Dependencies ansi-wl-pprint (>=0.6), base (>=4.7 && <=4.9), containers (>=0.5), lens (>=4.6), mtl (>=2.1.3.1), template-haskell (>=2.9), time (>=1.4.2), time-locale-compat (>=0.1.0.1), transformers (>=0.3.0.0), transformers-compat (>=0.4.0.0), unagi-chan (>=0.3) [details]
License Apache-2.0
Copyright Copyright (C) 2015 Wojciech Danilo
Author Wojciech Danilo
Maintainer Wojciech Danilo <wojciech.danilo@gmail.com>
Stability provisional
Category System
Home page https://github.com/wdanilo/haskell-logger
Bug tracker https://github.com/wdanilo/haskell-logger/issues
Source repository head: git clone git://github.com/wdanilo/haskell-logger.git
Uploaded Mon Nov 23 21:50:14 UTC 2015 by danilo2
Distributions NixOS:0.1.0.2
Downloads 335 total (4 in the last 30 days)
Votes
1 []
Status Docs not available [build log]
Last success reported on 2015-11-23 [all 4 reports]

Modules

  • System
    • System.Log
      • System.Log.Data
      • System.Log.Filter
      • System.Log.Format
      • System.Log.Level
      • System.Log.Log
      • Logger
        • System.Log.Logger.Base
        • System.Log.Logger.Drop
        • System.Log.Logger.Handler
        • System.Log.Logger.Priority
        • System.Log.Logger.Thread
        • System.Log.Logger.Writer
      • System.Log.Simple
      • System.Log.TH
      • System.Log.Tuples

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Readme for logger

Readme for logger-0.1.0.2

haskell-logger

Fast & extensible logging framework for Haskell!

Overview

Logger is a fast and extensible Haskell logging framework.

Logger allows you to log any kind of messages in both IO as well as pure code, depending on the information you want to log.

The framework bases on the idea of logger transformer stack defining the way it works. You can build your own stack to highly tailor the behaviour to your needs, starting with such simple things, like logging messages to a list, ending on logging compile-time, priority-filtered messages from different threads and gathering them in other logger thread.

Documentation

The following documentation describes how to use the framework, how it works under the hood and how can you extend it.

Basics

This chapter covers all the basic information about logger transformers shipped with the framework.

BaseLogger

Let's start with a very simple example:

import System.Log.Simple

test = do
    debug "a debug"
    warning "a warning"
    return "Done"

main = print $ runBaseLogger (Lvl, Msg) test
-- output: "Done"

There are few things to note here:

  • We are importing the System.Log.Simple interface. It provides all necessary functions to start with the library. There is another interface, System.Log.TH (using TemplateHaskell to gather logs location information), which provides similar functionality, but allows additionally logging such informations like file or module name and log location inside the file.
  • We are running the logger using runBaseLogger function providing the description what type of information we want to gather with each call to debug, warning, etc. This is very important, because we can choose only the needed information, like messages and levels and run the logger as a pure code. If you try to run the example with other description, like (Lvl, Msg, Time), it will fail complaining that it needs the IO monad for that.
  • The BaseLogger is the most base logger transformer and it should be run as a base for every logger transformer stack. It does not log any messages under the hood, in fact you cannot do anything sensible with it.

As every logger transformer, BaseLogger has an appropriate transformer type called BaseLoggerT. You can use it just as every monad transformer, to pipe computations to an underlying monad. Using the transformer we can ask our logger to log also such information as the time:

main = print =<< runBaseLogger (Lvl, Msg, Time) test

There is one very important design decision. All the logger transformers, apart from the base one, pass the newly registered log to underlying transformers. This way we can create a transformer that writes messages to disk and combine it with the one, that registers the logs in a list. There are some examples showing this behavior later in this document.

WriterLogger

WriterLogger is just like Writer monad - it gathers all the logs into a list and returns it:

main = print $ (runBaseLogger (Lvl, Msg) . runWriterLoggerT) test

As a result we get tuple, whose first element is the function's return value, while the second is list of all Log messages. For now the log message is not very friendly nested-tuple structure, but it will change in the next versions of the library. To be clear, the single log looks like this at the moment:

Log {fromLog = (Data {recBase = Lvl, recData = LevelData 0 "Debug"},(Data {recBase = Msg, recData = "a debug"},()))}

WriterLogger should work as fast as just WriterT monad transformer with Dlist used for logs gathering, because there should be no overhead introduced by the library.

HandlerLogger

HandlerLogger allows you to handle messages using handlers and log formatters. At last we will see something useful as a logging library! To start, let's look at a simple example:

import System.Log.Simple

test = do
    addHandler $ printHandler Nothing
    debug "a debug"
    warning "a warning"

main = print =<< (runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg) . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatter) test

As a result, we get a colored output (on all platforms, including Windows):

[Debug] a debug
[Warning] a warning
"Done"

Ok, so what's happening here? The function addHandler registers new log handler in current logger monad. The Nothing just indicates, that this handler does not need any special formatter and can use the default one, provided when executing the monad - in this case, the defaultFormatter. We can of course define our custom message formatters.

For now only the printHandler is provided, but it is straightforward to define custom handlers. Others will be added in the next versions of the library.

Formatters

It is possible to define a custom message formatter. To do it, import the module System.Log.Format and use so called formatter builder. Let's see how the defaultFormatter is defined:

defaultFormatter = colorLvlFormatter ("[" <:> Lvl <:> "] ") <:> Msg

You might ask now, what are Lvl or Msg. They are "data providers". You will learn about them later, for now just remember, you can use them while running loggers as well as defining formatters. There is one very important thing to note here - you cannot use any data provider in your logger, that was not declared to be gathered when the logger is run! In later chapters you will also learn how to create custom data providers.

So what if we would like to output not only the message and its priority level, but also the module name and location of the message in the source file? Such logger is also defined and it's called defaultFormatterTH. You cannot use it using the Simple interface, so let's see for now how it is defined:

defaultFormatterTH = colorLvlFormatter ("[" <:> Lvl <:> "] ") <:> Loc <:> ": " <:> Msg

Its output is similar to:

[Debug] Main.hs:4: a debug
[Warning] Main.hs:5: a warning

PriorityLogger

The PriorityLogger is used to filter the messages by priority levels. It is important to note here, that PriorityLogger is able to filter them at compile time, so if we need some IO actions to construct a log, like reading a time or process id, they will not be executed when the priority of such log is too low. Let's see how we can use it:

test = do
    addHandler $ printHandler Nothing
    debug "a debug"
    setPriority Debug
    debug "another debug"
    warning "a warning"
    
print =<< ( runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg) 
          . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatter 
          . runPriorityLoggerT Warning 
          ) test

As the output we get:

[Debug] another debug
[Warning] a warning

ThreadedLogger

The ThreadedLogger is a very fancy one. It allows to separate the actual logging from program. Program is being run on a separate thread, while logs are being gathered by the main thread. You can fork the program as many times you want and all the logs will be sent to the log-gather routine. This allows to get nicely not-broken output in terminal or in files from different threads. The program stops after all the logs have been processed. Let's look at the example:

import           System.Log.Simple
import qualified System.Log.Logger.Thread as Thread
import           Control.Monad.IO.Class (liftIO)

test = do
    addHandler $ printHandler Nothing
    debug "a debug"
    setPriority Debug
    debug "another debug"
    warning "a warning"
    Thread.fork $ do
        liftIO $ print "Threaded print"
        debug "debug in fork"
    liftIO $ print "End of the test!"
    
print =<< ( runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg) 
          . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatter 
          . runPriorityLoggerT Warning 
          . runThreadedLogger
          ) test

As the output we get:

"Threaded print"
"End of the test!"
[Debug] another debug
[Warning] a warning
[Debug] debug in fork

The output may of course vary, based on the way threads will be scheduled, because we use print functions here. Anyway you can notice, that the prints were executed at the same time as all the logging. It is important to use Thread.fork, which is just a simple wrapper around forkIO.

Exception handling

All the loggers behave in a proper way, when an exception is raised. The exception will be evaluated after all necessary logging has been done:

test = do
    addHandler $ printHandler Nothing
    debug "debug"
    Thread.fork $ do
        fail "oh no"
        debug "debug in fork"
    warning "a warning"

print =<< ( runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg) 
          . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatter 
          . runThreadedLogger
          ) test

Results in:

[Debug] debug
Main.hs: user error (oh no)

DropLogger

The DropLogger allows you to simply drop all logs from the function. It could be used if you want to execute a subroutine but just discard all logging there. The log messages would be completely discarded - they will not even be created.

TemplateHaskell interface

You can use more advanced interface to be able to log more information, like module name or file number. To use it, import System.Log.TH instead of System.Log.Simple and use TemplateHaskell syntax to report logs:

import System.Log.TH

test = do
    addHandler $ printHandler Nothing
    $(debug "a debug")
    setPriority Debug
    $(debug "another debug")
    $(warning "a warning")

print =<< ( runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg, Loc) 
          . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatterTH
          . runPriorityLoggerT Warning 
          . runThreadedLogger
          ) test

Which results in the following output:

[Debug] Main:7: another debug
[Warning] Main:8: a warning

Filtering messages

The framework allows you to filter messages after they have been created. It is slower than using PriorityLogger because the messages are created even if they are not needed. It could be used for example in a situation, where you've got many handlers and you want to output only important logs to the screen and all the logs into files. Here's a small example showing how it works.

test = do
    addHandler $ addFilter (lvlFilter Warning) $ printHandler Nothing
    $(debug "a debug")
    $(warning "a warning")

print =<< ( runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg, Loc) 
          . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatterTH
          ) test

Which results in:

[Warning] Main:5: a warning

Extending the logger

It is possible to extend the logging framework in any way you want. All the functionality you have seen above are just simple logger transformers and you can modify them in a ton of ways or create custom ones.

Custom priority levels

Defining a custom priority level is as easy as creating a new datatype that derives the Enum and start using it. The default priorities are defined as:

data Level = Debug     -- ^ Debug Logs
           | Info      -- ^ Information
           | Notice    -- ^ Normal runtime conditions
           | Warning   -- ^ General Warnings
           | Error     -- ^ General Errors
           | Critical  -- ^ Severe situations
           | Alert     -- ^ Take immediate action
           | Panic     -- ^ System is unusable
           deriving (Eq, Ord, Show, Read, Enum)

Custom data providers

It is possible to define custom data providers. Let's look how the Msg data provided is defined in the library:

data Msg = Msg deriving (Show)
type instance DataOf Msg = String

That's it. There is no more code for it. After creating such new datatype you can create a pretty printing instance for it and use it just like all other data even in the formatter builder! But how the data is being registered? Let's look how the debug function is defined in the Simple library:

debug = log empty Debug

The log function is a very generic one and allows creating almost any logging functionality. If for example we would love to add a new data provider Foo registering an Int, we can do this simply by:

data Foo = Foo deriving (Show)
type instance DataOf Foo = Int

debugFoo i = log (appData Foo i empty) Debug

instance PPrint Foo where
    pprint = text . show

fooFormatter = defaultFormatter <:> " (" <:> Foo <:> ")"

test = do
    addHandler $ printHandler Nothing
    debugFoo 7 "my custom debug"

print =<< ( runBaseLoggerT (Lvl, Msg, Foo) 
          . runHandlerLoggerT defaultFormatter
          ) test

Which results in:

[Debug] my custom debug (7)

A new function appData is used here. It allows providing a data to be registered when creating log messages. You can provide this way any data you want and only the data will be used, that is explicitly defined when running a logger. If you run a logger asking about data that was not provided when constructing the log, the framework will look for its monad data provider (described later). If there will be no such provider, it will fail at compile-time.

In fact, if we look how the log function is defined, we will find some similarities:

log rec pri msg = do
    [...]
    appendRecord $ appData Lvl (mkLevel pri)
                 $ appData Msg msg
                 $ rec

Monad data providers

What happens when such data is not provided when constructing the message? Like Time data? If data is not available at construction time, the logger looks for its DataGetter instance. A simple Time data provider could be defined as:

import Data.Time.Clock  (getCurrentTime, UTCTime)
import Data.Time.Format (formatTime, defaultTimeLocale)

data Time = Time deriving (Show)
type instance DataOf Time = UTCTime

instance MonadIO m => DataGetter Time m where
    getData = do liftIO $ Data Time <$> getCurrentTime

instance Pretty UTCTime where
    pretty = text . formatTime defaultTimeLocale "%c"

defaultTimeFormatter = colorLvlFormatter ("[" <:> Lvl <:> "] ") <:> Time <:> ": " <:> Msg

That's it! You can use any function inside - both pure as well as IO. If you use pure function, just return the value. If you will execute runBaseLogger it will be evaluated inside the Identity monad.

Custom logger transformers

It's also straightforward to define custom logger transformers. They have to be instances of some datatypes. To know more about it, look at example transformers inside the System.Log.Logger module.

Conclusion

This is a new logging library written for purposes of fast logging between threads. It is still under development, so you can expect some api changes. There is still some functionality missing, like file handlers, but as you have seen, it is easy to define such. Any help would be welcome.

Happy logging!