z3: Bindings for the Z3 Theorem Prover

[ bit-vectors, bsd3, formal-methods, library, math, smt, theorem-provers ] [ Propose Tags ]

Bindings for the Z3 4.x Theorem Prover (https://github.com/Z3Prover/z3).

  • Z3.Base.C provides the raw foreign imports from Z3's C API.

  • Z3.Base does the marshaling of values between Haskell and C, and transparently handles reference counting of Z3 objects for you.

  • Z3.Monad provides a convenient monadic wrapper for the common usage scenario.

Examples: https://github.com/IagoAbal/haskell-z3/tree/master/examples

Changelog: https://github.com/IagoAbal/haskell-z3/blob/master/CHANGES.md


  • Unix-like: Just be sure to use the standard locations for dynamic libraries (/usr/lib) and header files (/usr/include), or else use the --extra-lib-dirs and --extra-include-dirs Cabal flags.

(Hackage reports a build failure because Z3's library is missing.)

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Versions [RSS] 0.1.1, 0.2.0, 0.3.0, 0.3.1, 0.3.2, 4.0.0, 4.1.0, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.0, 4.3, 4.3.1, 408.0, 408.1, 408.2
Change log CHANGES.md
Dependencies base (>=4.5 && <5), containers, semigroups (>=0.5), transformers (>=0.2) [details]
License BSD-3-Clause
Copyright 2012-2020, Iago Abal, David Castro
Author Iago Abal <mail@iagoabal.eu>, David Castro <david.castro.dcp@gmail.com>
Maintainer Iago Abal <mail@iagoabal.eu>
Category Math, SMT, Theorem Provers, Formal Methods, Bit vectors
Home page https://github.com/IagoAbal/haskell-z3
Bug tracker https://github.com/IagoAbal/haskell-z3/issues
Source repo head: git clone git@github.com:IagoAbal/haskell-z3.git
Uploaded by IagoAbal at 2020-08-29T20:10:08Z
Distributions NixOS:408.2
Reverse Dependencies 6 direct, 0 indirect [details]
Executables examples
Downloads 10651 total (62 in the last 30 days)
Rating 2.25 (votes: 2) [estimated by Bayesian average]
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Readme for z3-408.2

[back to package description]

Haskell bindings for Microsoft's Z3 (unofficial)

These are Haskell bindings for the Z3 theorem prover. We don't provide any high-level interface (e.g. in the form of a Haskell eDSL) here, these bindings are targeted to those who want to build verification tools on top of Z3 in Haskell.

Changelog here.

Examples here.

Do you want to contribute?

State of maintenance

The library is currently "maintained", meaning that I try to be responsive to new issues and pull requests. Unfortunately I do not have time to investigate issues or to do major work myself. I do try to help those who want to contribute.

If someone demonstrates willingness to maintain the library more actively in the long run, then I will be very happy to give the required permissions to become a co-maintainer. In the meantime I will do my best to keep it alive.

Supported versions and version policy

Z3 releases come out often and sometimes introduce backwards incompatible changes. In order to avoid #ifdef-ery, we only try to support a reasonably recent version of Z3, ideally the latest one. We use semantic versioning to reflect which version(s) are supported:


The <z3-version> indicates which version of Z3 is supported, it is computed as x*100+y for Z3 x.y. For example, versions 408.y.z of these bindings are meant to support versions 4.8.* of Z3. This version policy is in line with Haskell's PVP.


Preferably use the z3 package.

  • Install a Z3 4.x release. (Support for Z3 3.x is provided by the 0.3.2 version of these bindings.)

  • Just type cabal install z3 if you used the standard locations for dynamic libraries (/usr/lib) and header files (/usr/include).

    • Otherwise use the --extra-lib-dirs and --extra-include-dirs Cabal flags when installing.


Most people uses the Z3.Monad interface. Here is an example script that solves the 4-queen puzzle:

import Control.Applicative
import Control.Monad ( join )
import Data.Maybe
import qualified Data.Traversable as T

import Z3.Monad

script :: Z3 (Maybe [Integer])
script = do
  q1 <- mkFreshIntVar "q1"
  q2 <- mkFreshIntVar "q2"
  q3 <- mkFreshIntVar "q3"
  q4 <- mkFreshIntVar "q4"
  _1 <- mkInteger 1
  _4 <- mkInteger 4
  -- the ith-queen is in the ith-row.
  -- qi is the column of the ith-queen
  assert =<< mkAnd =<< T.sequence
    [ mkLe _1 q1, mkLe q1 _4  -- 1 <= q1 <= 4
    , mkLe _1 q2, mkLe q2 _4
    , mkLe _1 q3, mkLe q3 _4
    , mkLe _1 q4, mkLe q4 _4
  -- different columns
  assert =<< mkDistinct [q1,q2,q3,q4]
  -- avoid diagonal attacks
  assert =<< mkNot =<< mkOr =<< T.sequence
    [ diagonal 1 q1 q2  -- diagonal line of attack between q1 and q2
    , diagonal 2 q1 q3
    , diagonal 3 q1 q4
    , diagonal 1 q2 q3
    , diagonal 2 q2 q4
    , diagonal 1 q3 q4
  -- check and get solution
  fmap snd $ withModel $ \m ->
    catMaybes <$> mapM (evalInt m) [q1,q2,q3,q4]
  where mkAbs x = do
          _0 <- mkInteger 0
          join $ mkIte <$> mkLe _0 x <*> pure x <*> mkUnaryMinus x
        diagonal d c c' =
          join $ mkEq <$> (mkAbs =<< mkSub [c',c]) <*> (mkInteger d)

In order to run this SMT script:

main :: IO ()
main = evalZ3 script >>= \mbSol ->
        case mbSol of
             Nothing  -> error "No solution found."
             Just sol -> putStr "Solution: " >> print sol