# Express

Express is a library for manipulating dynamically typed Haskell expressions.
It's like `Data.Dynamic`

but with support for encoding applications and
variables.

It provides the `Expr`

type and over a hundred functions for
building, evaluating, comparing, folding, canonicalizing and matching
`Expr`

s. See Express's Haddock documentation for more details.

This library has been used in the implementation of
Speculate and Extrapolate.

## Installing

To install the latest Express version from Hackage, just run:

```
$ cabal update
$ cabal install express
```

Starting from Cabal v3.0, you need to pass `--lib`

as an argument to cabal
install:

```
$ cabal install leancheck --lib
```

## Basics

To import `Express`

just:

```
> import Data.Express
```

For types that are `Show`

instances,
we can use `val`

to encode values as `Expr`

s.

```
> let false = val False
> :t false
false :: Expr
> print false
False :: Bool
> let one = val (1 :: Int)
> :t one
one :: Expr
> print one
1 :: Int
```

As seen above, the `Show`

instance for `Expr`

produces a string with the
encoded value and it's type.

For types that aren't `Show`

instances, like functions,
we can use `value`

to encode values as `Expr`

s.

```
> let notE = value "not" not
> :t notE
notE :: Expr
> print notE
not :: Bool -> Bool
```

Using `:$`

we can apply function valued `Expr`

s, to other Exprs.

```
> let notFalse = notE :$ false
> :t notFalse
notFalse :: Expr
> notFalse
not False :: Bool
```

Using `evaluate`

and `eval`

we can evaluate `Expr`

s back into a regular Haskell value.

```
> evaluate notFalse :: Maybe Bool
Just True
> evaluate notFalse :: Maybe Int
Nothing
> eval False notFalse
True
> eval (0::Int) notFalse
0
```

## Example 1: heterogeneous lists

Like with `Data.Dynamic`

, we can use Express to create heterogeneous lists.

Here, we use applications of `val`

to create a heterogeneous list:

```
> let xs = [val False, val True, val (1::Int), val (2::Int), val (3::Integer), val "123"]
> :t xs
xs :: [Expr]
> xs
[ False :: Bool
, True :: Bool
, 1 :: Int
, 2 :: Int
, 3 :: Integer
, "123" :: [Char]
]
```

We can then apply `evaluate`

to select values of different types:

```
> import Data.Maybe
> mapMaybe evaluate xs :: [Bool]
[False,True]
> mapMaybe evaluate xs :: [Int]
[1,2]
> mapMaybe evaluate xs :: [Integer]
[3]
> mapMaybe evaluate xs :: [String]
["123"]
```

## Example 2: listing applications

Carrying on from Example 1, we define an heterogeneous list of functions
encoded as `Expr`

s:

```
> let fs = [value "not" not, value "&&" (&&), value "abs" (abs :: Int -> Int)]
> :t fs
fs :: [Expr]
```

Using `$$`

we list the type correct applications of functions in `fs`

to
values in `xs`

.

```
> catMaybes [f $$ x | f <- fs, x <- xs]
[ not False :: Bool
, not True :: Bool
, (False &&) :: Bool -> Bool
, (True &&) :: Bool -> Bool
, abs 1 :: Int
, abs 2 :: Int
]
```

u-Extrapolate is a property-based testing library
capable of generalizing counter-examples. It's implementation has under 40
lines of code. Besides, using Express to encode expressions, it uses
LeanCheck for generating test values.

```
import Data.Express
import Test.LeanCheck hiding (counterExample, check)
```

Given a maximum number of tests and a property, the following `counterExample`

function returns either `Nothing`

when tests pass or `Just`

a counterexample
encoded as an `Expr`

.

```
counterExample :: (Listable a, Express a) => Int -> (a -> Bool) -> Maybe Expr
counterExample maxTests prop = listToMaybe
[expr x | x <- take maxTests list, not (prop x)]
```

Examples (REPL):

```
> counterExample 100 (\(x,y) -> x + y == y + x)
Nothing
> counterExample 100 (\x -> x == x + x)
Just (1 :: Integer)
> counterExample 100 (\xs -> nub xs == (xs :: [Int]))
Just ([0,0] :: [Int])
```

Before moving on to generalize counterexamples, we need a way to compute ground
expressions from an expression with variables. For that, we will use `grounds`

and `tiersFor`

:

```
grounds :: Expr -> [Expr]
grounds e = map (e //-)
. concat
$ products [mapT ((,) v) (tiersFor v) | v <- nubVars e]
tiersFor :: Expr -> [[Expr]]
tiersFor e = case show (typ e) of
"Int" -> mapT val (tiers :: [[Int]])
"Bool" -> mapT val (tiers :: [[Bool]])
"[Int]" -> mapT val (tiers :: [[ [Int] ]])
"[Bool]" -> mapT val (tiers :: [[ [Bool] ]])
_ -> []
```

Above, we restrict ourselves to `Int`

, `Bool`

, `[Int]`

and `[Bool]`

as test
types. So we can now compute the grounds of an expression with variables:

```
> grounds (value "not" not :$ var "p" (undefined :: Bool))
[ not False :: Bool
, not True :: Bool
]
> grounds (value "&&" (&&) :$ var "p" (undefined :: Bool) :$ var "q" (undefined :: Bool))
[ False && False :: Bool
, False && True :: Bool
, True && False :: Bool
, True && True :: Bool
]
```

To compute candidate generalizations from a given counter-example, we use the
following function:

```
candidateGeneralizations :: Expr -> [Expr]
candidateGeneralizations = map canonicalize
. concatMap canonicalVariations
. gen
where
gen e@(e1 :$ e2) =
[holeAsTypeOf e | isListable e]
++ [g1 :$ g2 | g1 <- gen e1, g2 <- gen e2]
++ map (:$ e2) (gen e1)
++ map (e1 :$) (gen e2)
gen e
| isVar e = []
| otherwise = [holeAsTypeOf e | isListable e]
isListable = not . null . tiersFor
```

The need for `isListable`

above makes sure we only replace by variables what we
can enumerate. Our candidate generalizations are listed in non-increasing
order of generality:

```
> candidateGeneralizations (value "not" not :$ val False)
[ p :: Bool
, not p :: Bool
]
Prelude> candidateGeneralizations (value "||" (||) :$ val False :$ val True)
[ p :: Bool
, p || q :: Bool
, p || p :: Bool
, p || True :: Bool
, False || p :: Bool
]
```

For a given maximum number of tests, property and counter-example, the
following function returns a counter-example generalization if one is found.
It goes through the list of candidate generalizations and returns the first for
which all tests *fail*.

```
counterExampleGeneralization :: Express a => Int -> (a -> Bool) -> Expr -> Maybe Expr
counterExampleGeneralization maxTests prop e = listToMaybe
[g | g <- candidateGeneralizations e
, all (not . prop . evl) (take maxTests $ grounds g)]
```

We can finally define our `check`

function, that will test a property and
report a counterexample and a generalization when either are found.

```
check :: (Listable a, Express a) => (a -> Bool) -> IO ()
check prop = putStrLn $ case counterExample 500 prop of
Nothing -> "+++ Tests passed.\n"
Just ce -> "*** Falsified, counterexample: " ++ show ce
++ case counterExampleGeneralization 500 prop ce of
Nothing -> ""
Just g -> "\n generalization: " ++ show g
++ "\n"
```

Now we can find counterexamples and their generalizations:

```
> check $ \xs -> sort (sort xs :: [Int]) == sort xs
+++ Tests passed.
> check $ \xs -> length (nub xs :: [Int]) == length xs
*** Falsified, counterexample: [0,0] :: [Int]
generalization: x:x:xs :: [Int]
> check $ \x -> x == x + (1 :: Int)
*** Falsified, counterexample: 0 :: Int
generalization: x :: Int
> check $ \(x,y) -> x /= (y :: Int)
*** Falsified, counterexample: (0,0) :: (Int,Int)
generalization: (x,x) :: (Int,Int)
```

u-Extrapolate has some limitations:

- it only supports properties with one argument (uncurried);
- it only supports generalization of
`Int`

, `Bool`

, `[Int]`

and `[Bool]`

values;
- there is no way to configure the number of test arguments.

Please see Extrapolate for a full-featured version without the above
limitations and with support for conditional generalizations.

## Example 4: u-Speculate

Using Express, it takes less than 70 lines of code to define a function
`speculateAbout`

that conjectures equations about a set of functions based on
the results of testing:

```
> speculateAbout [hole (undefined :: Bool), val False, val True, value "not" not]
[ not False == True :: Bool
, not True == False :: Bool
, not (not p) == p :: Bool
]
> speculateAbout
> [ hole (undefined :: Int)
> , hole (undefined :: [Int])
> , val ([] :: [Int])
> , value ":" ((:) :: Int -> [Int] -> [Int])
> , value "++" ((++) :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int])
> , value "sort" (sort :: [Int] -> [Int])
> ]
[ sort [] == [] :: Bool
, xs ++ [] == xs :: Bool
, [] ++ xs == xs :: Bool
, sort (sort xs) == sort xs :: Bool
, sort [x] == [x] :: Bool
, [x] ++ xs == x:xs :: Bool
, sort (xs ++ ys) == sort (ys ++ xs) :: Bool
, sort (x:sort xs) == sort (x:xs) :: Bool
, sort (xs ++ sort ys) == sort (xs ++ ys) :: Bool
, sort (sort xs ++ ys) == sort (xs ++ ys) :: Bool
, (x:xs) ++ ys == x:(xs ++ ys) :: Bool
, (xs ++ ys) ++ zs == xs ++ (ys ++ zs) :: Bool
]
```

Please see the u-Speculate example in the eg folder for the full code
of `speculateAbout`

.

u-Speculate has some limitations:

- it sometimes prints redundant equations;
- although it usually runs quickly with less than 6 symbols,
runtime is exponential with the number of symbols given,
providing it with more than a dozen symbols can make it run for several
minutes or hours;
- there is no way to configure the size limit of reported equations;
- it only supports variables of
`Int`

, `Bool`

, `[Int]`

, and `[Bool]`

types.

Please see Speculate for a full-featured version without the above
limitations.

## Example 5: u-Conjure

Using Express, it takes less than 70 lines of code to define a function
`conjure`

that generates a function from a partial function definition
and a list of primitives.

**Example 5.1.** Given:

```
factorial :: Int -> Int
factorial 0 = 1
factorial 1 = 1
factorial 2 = 2
factorial 3 = 6
factorial 4 = 24
```

Running:

```
conjure "factorial" factorial
[ val (0 :: Int)
, val (1 :: Int)
, value "+" ((+) :: Int -> Int -> Int)
, value "*" ((*) :: Int -> Int -> Int)
, value "foldr" (foldr :: (Int -> Int -> Int) -> Int -> [Int] -> Int)
, value "enumFromTo" (enumFromTo :: Int -> Int -> [Int])
]
```

Prints:

```
factorial :: Int -> Int
factorial x = foldr (*) 1 (enumFromTo 1 x)
```

**Example 5.2.** Given:

```
(+++) :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int]
[x] +++ [y] = [x,y]
[x,y] +++ [z,w] = [x,y,z,w]
```

Running:

```
conjure "++" (+++)
[ val (0 :: Int)
, val (1 :: Int)
, val ([] :: [Int])
, value "head" (head :: [Int] -> Int)
, value "tail" (tail :: [Int] -> [Int])
, value ":" ((:) :: Int -> [Int] -> [Int])
, value "foldr" (foldr :: (Int -> [Int] -> [Int]) -> [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int])
]
```

Prints:

```
(++) :: [Int] -> [Int] -> [Int]
xs ++ ys = foldr (:) ys xs
```

Please see the u-Conjure example in the eg folder for the full code.

u-Conjure has some limitations:

- the maximum function size (7) or number of tests (60) are not configurable;
- the maximum function size has to be kept small (<=7)
for a reasonable runtime.
Due to this, several simple functions are simply out-of-reach;
- the number of primitive functions given has to be kept small (<12)
for a reasonable runtime;
- there is no support for explicitly recursive functions
thought it is possible to pass
`foldr`

and similar functions as primitives.

Please see Conjure library for an experimental version that addresses
some the above limitations.

## Further reading

For a detailed documentation, please see Express's Haddock documentation.

For more examples, see the eg and bench folders.

Express is subject to a paper
"Express: Applications of Dynamically Typed Haskell Expressions"
(2021).