reflex-gadt-api: Interact with a GADT API in your reflex-dom application.

[ api, bsd3, frp, library, network, program ] [ Propose Tags ]

This package is designed to be used in full-stack Haskell applications where the API is defined as a GADT and the frontend is using reflex-dom.


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Versions [RSS] [faq] 0.1.0.0, 0.2.0.0, 0.2.0.1, 0.2.1.0
Change log ChangeLog.md
Dependencies aeson (>=1.4.4 && <1.5), aeson-gadt-th (>=0.2.4 && <0.3), base (>=4.12 && <4.14), bytestring (>=0.10.8 && <0.11), constraints (>=0.10.1 && <0.11), constraints-extras (>=0.3.0 && <0.4), containers (==0.6.*), data-default (>=0.6 && <0.8), jsaddle (>=0.9.7 && <0.10), reflex (>=0.7 && <0.9), reflex-dom-core (>=0.6.0 && <0.7), reflex-gadt-api, some (>=1 && <1.1), text (==1.2.*), time (>=1.6.0 && <2) [details]
License BSD-3-Clause
Copyright 2020 Obsidian Systems LLC
Author Obsidian Systems
Maintainer maintainer@obsidian.systems
Category FRP, API, network
Bug tracker https://github.com/reflex-frp/reflex-gadt-api/issues
Source repo head: git clone git://github.com/reflex-frp/reflex-gadt-api.git
Uploaded by abrar at 2020-11-10T03:19:08Z
Distributions NixOS:0.2.1.0
Executables readme
Downloads 275 total (7 in the last 30 days)
Rating 2.0 (votes: 1) [estimated by Bayesian average]
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Readme for reflex-gadt-api-0.2.1.0

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reflex-gadt-api

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This package is designed to be used in full-stack Haskell applications where the API is defined as a GADT, the wire format is JSON, and the frontend is using reflex-dom(-core). reflex-gadt-api provides the basic FRP and encoding/decoding infrastructure to support this architecture.

To serialize the GADT API definition, we use aeson-gadt-th with a little help from constraints-extras.

Example Usage:

Let's start with some imports and language pragmas.


> {-# LANGUAGE DeriveGeneric #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE LambdaCase #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE QuantifiedConstraints #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE RecursiveDo #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE UndecidableInstances #-}
>
> module Readme where
>
> import Control.Monad (void)
> import Control.Monad.IO.Class (MonadIO)
> import Control.Monad.Fix (MonadFix)
> import Data.Aeson (ToJSON(..), FromJSON(..))
> import Data.Aeson.GADT.TH (deriveJSONGADT)
> import Data.Constraint.Extras (Has)
> import Data.Constraint.Extras.TH (deriveArgDict)
> import Data.Text as T (Text, null, pack)
> import Data.Time (UTCTime, Day)
> import GHC.Generics (Generic)
> import Reflex.Dom.Core
> import Reflex.Dom.GadtApi
>

The code that follows would typically go in a common module, since it would be used on the frontend and on the backend. It sets up the basic data type definitions and a couple of GADTs that describe the API.


> data Dog = Dog
>   { _dog_name :: Text
>   , _dog_sighted :: UTCTime
>   , _dog_suspicious :: Bool
>   , _dog_imageUri :: Maybe Text
>   }
>   deriving (Generic)
>
> instance ToJSON Dog
> instance FromJSON Dog
>

Here we have an API for retrieving and interacting with the Dog data:


> data DogApi :: * -> * where
>   DogApi_GetByDay :: Day -> DogApi [Dog]
>   DogApi_GetByName :: Text -> DogApi [Dog]
>   DogApi_GetLastSeen :: DogApi (Maybe Dog)
>   DogApi_ReportSighting :: Text -> Bool -> Maybe Text -> DogApi (Either Text ())
>   DogApi_GetSuspiciousSightings :: DogApi [Dog]
>
> newtype Token = Token { unToken :: Text }
>   deriving (Generic)
>
> instance ToJSON Token
> instance FromJSON Token
>

We can take the DogApi and embed it in another GADT API. This outer API will handle authentication. (Note that we're not actually implementing a secure authentication scheme or anything here. This is just a toy example.)


> data CatApi a where
>   CatApi_Identify :: Text -> CatApi (Either Text Token)
>   CatApi_DogApi :: Token -> DogApi a -> CatApi a
>
> deriveJSONGADT ''DogApi
> deriveJSONGADT ''CatApi
> deriveArgDict ''DogApi
> deriveArgDict ''CatApi
>

On the frontend, we'll run a RequesterT widget that allows us to emit an event of requests, and we'll transform those requests into XHR calls to the API endpoint.


> type Catnet t m = (RequesterT t CatApi (Either Text) m)
>

This synonym is just here for convenience. The right-hand-side describes a RequesterT widget that issues CatApi requests and receives responses. In other words, when we're inside this RequesterT we can call the requesting function to send API requests and receive responses.

The Either here represents the possibility that we'll receive an error instead of the response we expected.

Now, we'll actually start up the RequesterT:


> startCatnet
>   :: forall js t m.
>      ( Prerender js t m, MonadHold t m
>      , MonadIO (Performable m), MonadFix m
>      , DomBuilder t m, PostBuild t m
>      , TriggerEvent t m, PerformEvent t m
>      , Has FromJSON CatApi
>      , forall a. ToJSON (CatApi a)
>      )
>   => Either ApiEndpoint WebSocketEndpoint
>   -> m ()
> startCatnet endpoint = do

runRequesterT expects us to provide some reflex widget as its first argument (here start). The reflex widget is able to issue API requests, and one of the results of runRequesterT is an Event of those requests.

The second argument to runRequesterT is an Event of responses. Because we need to get this Event of requests and feed it into a function that can produce the responses, and then feed those responses back into runRequesterT, we have to use RecursiveDo. If we didn't we wouldn't have access to the responses inside of the reflex widget that issued the requests. This is the main loop of a RequesterT widget.


>   rec (_, requests) <- runRequesterT start responses

The Event of responses comes, in this case, from a functoin that will take the requests emitted on the previous line and fetch responses to those requests. It produces an Event of responses. We can use either Reflex.Dom.GadtApi.XHR.performXhrRequests if we want to send requests using XHR or Reflex.Dom.GadtApi.WebSocket.performWebSocketRequests to use WebSockets.


>       responses <- case endpoint of
>         Left xhr -> performXhrRequests xhr (requests :: Event t (RequesterData CatApi))
>         Right ws -> performWebSocketRequests ws (requests :: Event t (RequesterData CatApi))
>   pure ()
>   where

Our start widget has the type Catnet t m (), so it (and its child widgets) can potentially issue CatApi requests.

The actual widget code here isn't important to the way that RequesterT works, nor is this meant to be production-grade application. Nevertheless, there are a few interesting bits that we'll point out.

We're using reflex Workflows to switch between pages, but we could accomplish the same result in other ways. Each Workflow can run a widget and send the user to another page based on the firing of some Event (either produced by the child widget or in scope from somewhere else).


>     start :: Catnet t m ()
>     start = void $ workflowView loginW
>     loginW :: Workflow t (Catnet t m) ()
>     loginW = Workflow $ do
>       token <- login
>       pure ((), catnetW <$> token) -- Go to catnet after "logging in"
>     catnetW token = Workflow $ do
>       addDog <- catnet token
>       pure ((), dogSightingW token <$ addDog) -- Go to sighting submission form
>     dogSightingW token = Workflow $ do
>       rsp <- dogSighting token
>       leave <- delay 3 rsp
>       pure ((), catnetW token <$ leave) -- Go back to catnet
>

If you're building your frontend in a context where the user interface needs to be susceptible to server-side rendering (for example, if you're using obelisk's "prerendering" functionality to serve static pages that are "hydrated" once the JS loads), you'll need to wrap any code relying on Javascript (e.g., your XHR requests) in a prerender. The function below does this for us.


> requestingJs
>   :: (Reflex t, MonadFix m, Prerender js t m)
>   => Event t (Request (Client (Catnet t m)) a)
>   -> Catnet t m (Event t (Response (Client (Catnet t m)) a))
> requestingJs r = fmap (switch . current) $ prerender (pure never) $ requesting r
>

On the login page, we construct a Behavior of a CatApi_Identify request and send it when the user clicks the submit button.

The response from the server is an Event that can be used to update the user interface or perform other actions.


> login
>   :: (DomBuilder t m, MonadHold t m, MonadFix m, Prerender js t m)
>   => Catnet t m (Event t Token)
> login = do
>   el "h1" $ text "Identify Yourself"
>   cat <- inputElement def
>   click <- button "submit"
>   rsp <- requestingJs $
>     tag (current $ CatApi_Identify <$> value cat) click
>   let token = fforMaybe rsp $ \case
>         Right (Right catToken) -> Just catToken
>         _ -> Nothing
>   pure token
>

This function builds a UI with a few buttons. Depending on which button is clicked, we'll issue an API request and display the result, with one exception: the "Report a Sighting" button click event is returned (and used by the Workflow above to navigate to another page).


> catnet
>   :: (DomBuilder t m, MonadHold t m, MonadFix m, Prerender js t m)
>   => Token
>   -> Catnet t m (Event t ())
> catnet token = do
>   el "h1" $ text "Welcome, Fellow Cat."
>   addDog <- button "Report a Sighting"
>   -- Issue a request for the last seen dog and display the result or error.
>   getLastSeen <- button "Get Last Seen"
>   lastSeen <- requestingJs $
>     CatApi_DogApi token DogApi_GetLastSeen <$ getLastSeen
>   widgetHold_ blank $ ffor lastSeen $ \case
>     Left err -> text err
>     Right Nothing -> text "No dogs reported. Rest easy, catizen."
>     Right (Just dog) -> showDog dog
>   -- Issue a request for suspicious dogs and display the result or error.
>   showSuspicious <- button "Suspicious Dogs"
>   suspicious <- requestingJs $
>     CatApi_DogApi token DogApi_GetSuspiciousSightings <$ showSuspicious
>   widgetHold_ blank $ ffor suspicious $ \case
>     Left err -> text err
>     Right dogs -> el "ul" $ mapM_ (el "li" . showDog) dogs
>   -- Return the "Report a sighting" click event
>   pure addDog
>

The showDog widget below does not have Catnet or RequesterT in its type signature, so we know that it doesn't issue requests. It just builds a display widget for a particular Dog.


> showDog :: DomBuilder t m => Dog -> m ()
> showDog dog = divClass "dog" $ el "dl" $ do
>   el "dt" $ text "Name"
>   el "dd" $ text $ _dog_name dog
>   el "dt" $ text "Last Seen: "
>   el "dd" $ text $ pack $ show $ _dog_sighted dog
>   el "dt" $ text "Suspicious?"
>   el "dd" $ text $ case _dog_suspicious dog of
>     True -> "very"
>     False -> "not sure"
>   el "dt" $ text "Mugshot"
>   el "dd" $ case _dog_imageUri dog of
>     Just img -> elAttr "img" ("src" =: img <> "alt" =: "dog mugshot") blank
>     Nothing -> text "None"
>

This rudimentary form allows us to assemble a Dynamic DogApi request, embed it in a CatApi request, and send it.


> dogSighting
>   :: (DomBuilder t m, MonadHold t m, PostBuild t m, Prerender js t m, MonadFix m)
>   => Token
>   -> Catnet t m (Event t (Either Text ()))
> dogSighting token = do

The input elements below produce Dynamic text and bool values that we will use to construct our DogApi_ReportSighting request. Recall that DogApi_ReportSighting has the type:

DogApi_ReportSighting :: Text -> Bool -> Maybe Text -> DogApi (Either Text ())

We need to get some text for the name, a bool indicating the dog's suspiciousness, and, optionally, some text for the url of the dog's picture.


>   name <- el "label" $ do
>     text "Name"
>     _inputElement_value <$> inputElement def
>   suspect <- el "label" $ do
>     text "Suspicious?"
>     value <$> checkbox False def
>   img <- el "label" $ do
>     text "Image URI (if available)"
>     v <- _inputElement_value <$> inputElement def
>     pure $ ffor v $ \v' -> if T.null v' then Nothing else Just v'
>   send <- button "submit"

Once we've got those three values, we can apply them to the DogApi_ReportSighting constructor. We're using some infix functoins from Control.Applicative to apply the constructor to Dynamic values, and, as a result, we get a Dynamic DogApi request. When the submit Event fires, we take the current value of that Dynamic and send it.


>   let dogApi = DogApi_ReportSighting <$> name <*> suspect <*> img
>   rsp <- requestingJs $ tag (current $ CatApi_DogApi token <$> dogApi) send
>   widgetHold_ blank $ ffor rsp $ \case
>     Right (Right ()) -> text "Dog reported! Returning to catnet..."
>     _ -> text "Couldn't submit."
>   pure $ ffor rsp $ \case
>     Right (Left err) -> Left err
>     Left err -> Left err
>     Right (Right result) -> Right result
>
> main :: IO ()
> main = return ()

Go to the example directory to run this example (including the backend).