yoda: Parser combinators for young padawans

[ bsd3, library, text ] [ Propose Tags ]

Yoda is a small parser combinator library. It is not efficient, nor beautiful, but it hopes to teach young padawans to use the source and learn to write a parser.


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Versions [faq] 0.1.0.0, 0.1.1.0, 0.1.2.0, 0.1.3.0
Change log ChangeLog.md
Dependencies base (==4.10.*) [details]
License BSD-3-Clause
Author Nicolas Wu
Maintainer nicolas.wu@gmail.com
Category Text
Home page https://github.com/zenzike/yoda
Source repo head: git clone https://github.com/zenzike/yoda
Uploaded by NicolasWu at Mon Nov 5 23:03:57 UTC 2018
Distributions NixOS:0.1.3.0
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    • Text.Yoda

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                  parser combinators for young padawans

Introduction

Yoda is a small parser combinator library. It is not efficient, nor beautiful, but it hopes to teach young padawans to use the source and learn to write a parser.

╔═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║                                                             ║
║  <(-,-)>  Do, or do not, there is no try.  -- Master Yoda   ║
║                                                             ║
╚═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝

Yoda is a parser in the Parsec family of libraries, which includes Parsec, attoparsec, Megaparsec, and trifecta. The main difference is that Yoda does not require you to use the try function: it automatically tries all alternatives for you.

The module exports the following functions and types. Some of these functions are defined outside of this file, namely, those marked under Functor, Applicative, Alternative, Monad.


> {-# LANGUAGE InstanceSigs #-}
> module Text.Yoda
>   ( Parser
>   , parse
>   , parseMaybe
>   , parseIO
>
>   -- Functor
>   , (<$>), (<$), skip
>
>   -- Applicative
>   , pure, (<*>), (<*), (*>), (<**>)
>
>   -- Alternative
>   , (<|>), empty, some, many, optional, choice
>   , chainl, chainl1, chainr, chainr1
>   , prefix, postfix

>   -- Monoidal
>   , unit, mult, (<~>), (<~), (~>)
>
>   -- Monad
>   , return, (>>=)
>
>   -- Miscellaneous
>   , item, look, eof, char, string, satisfy
>   , oneOf, noneOf, sepBy, sepBy1
>   , (<:>), between
>
>   , cull
>   , try  -- not needed, but here for historic reasons
>
>   ) where

We have to import some classes whose instances we will be implementing for our parsers.


> import Control.Monad
> import Control.Applicative
> import Data.List

Parser

Our parsers will take in a String and produce a list of possible parses, along with remaining unparsed strings.


> newtype Parser a = Parser (String -> [(a, String)])

> parse :: Parser a -> (String -> [(a, String)])
> parse (Parser p) = p


> parseIO :: Parser a -> String -> IO a
> parseIO p fileName = do
>   file <- readFile fileName
>   let Just result = parseMaybe p file
>   return result

> parseMaybe :: Parser a -> String -> Maybe a
> parseMaybe px ts = case parse px ts of
>   []             -> Nothing
>   ((x, ts'):txs) -> Just x

This parser tries to push out a character from the incoming stream. It fails to parse if there is no remaining input.


> item :: Parser Char
> item = Parser (\ts -> case ts of
>   []      -> []
>   (t:ts') -> [(t, ts')])

Now we implement Luke, I mean, look:


> look :: Parser String
> look = Parser (\ts -> [(ts, ts)])

It is also useful to know if we have reached the end of the input:


> eof :: Parser ()
> eof = Parser (\ts -> case ts of
>   [] -> [((), ts)]
>   _  -> [])

At this stage, we can output what has been given to us on the input, but we have no way to change the outcome of what we do based on that input.

We'll now start climbing the class hierarchy. Each class provides its own ways of combining and working with parsers, and extends the power of our combinator language with new functionality.

Functor

The functor instance captures the idea of modifying the output of successful parses.


> instance Functor Parser where
>   fmap :: (a -> b) -> Parser a -> Parser b
>   fmap f (Parser px) = Parser (\ts -> [ (f x, ts') | (x, ts') <- px ts])

Derived combinators:


< (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
< (<$>) = fmap
<
< (<$) :: Functor f => a -> f b -> f a
< x <$ py = const x <$> py

> skip :: Functor f => f a -> f ()
> skip px = () <$ px

Applicative

The applicative instance shows how parsers can be chained together.


> instance Applicative Parser where
>   pure :: a -> Parser a
>   pure x = Parser (\ts -> [(x, ts)])
>
>   (<*>) :: Parser (a -> b) -> Parser a -> Parser b
>   Parser pf <*> Parser px =
>     Parser (\ts -> [ (f x, ts'') | (f, ts')  <- pf ts
>                                  , (x, ts'') <- px ts'])

Derived combinators:


< (<*) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f a
< px <* py = const <$> px <*> py
<
< (*>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f b
< px *> py = flip const <$> px <*> py
<       -- = id <$ px <*> py
<
< (<**>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f (a -> b) -> f b
< px <**> pf = (flip ($)) <$> px <*> pf


> (<:>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f [a] -> f [a]
> px <:> pxs = (:) <$> px <*> pxs

> between :: Applicative f => f open -> f close -> f a -> f a
> between popen pclose px = popen *> px <* pclose

Monoidal

An equivalent alternative class to Applicative is Monoidal.


> class Functor f => Monoidal f where
>   unit :: f ()
>   mult :: f a -> f b -> f (a, b)

> instance Monoidal Parser where

The unit parser returns () without parsing any input.


>   unit :: Parser ()
>   unit = Parser (\ts -> [((), ts)])

For example:


< parse (unit) "Hello" = [((), "Hello")]

The mult combinator takes two parsers px and py and returns pairs of values containing the results of parsing px followed by py.


>   mult :: Parser a -> Parser b -> Parser (a, b)
>   mult (Parser px) (Parser py) =
>     Parser (\ts -> [((x, y), ts'') | (x, ts')  <- px ts
>                                    , (y, ts'') <- py ts'])

This is convenient as the following binary operator:


> (<~>) :: Monoidal f => f a -> f b -> f (a, b)
> px <~> py =  mult px py

The following derived combinators project out an element of the pair:


> (<~) :: Monoidal f => f a -> f b -> f a
> px <~ py = fst <$> px <~> py
>
> (~>) :: Monoidal f => f a -> f b -> f b
> px ~> py = snd <$> px <~> py

The combinators for Applicative and Monoidal can be defined in terms of one another.


< pure x    = const x <$> unit
< pf <*> px = uncurry ($) (pf <~> py)

< unit       = pure ()
< mult px py = (,) <$> px <*> py

< px <* py  = px <~ py
< px *> py  = px ~> py

Alternative

Choices between parsers are given by the Alternative class. This class assumes that the given Parser is already Applicative.


> instance Alternative Parser where
>   empty :: Parser a
>   empty = Parser (\ts -> [])
>
>   (<|>) :: Parser a -> Parser a -> Parser a
>   Parser px <|> Parser py = Parser (\ts -> px ts ++ py ts)

Derived combinators

A simple convenience function that offers the choice between inputs is given by choice:


> choice :: Alternative f => [f a] -> f a
> choice = foldr (<|>) empty

It's useful to repeat a parser multiple times. The some px parser parses one or more instances of px, whereas the many px parser parses zero or more instances of px.


< some :: Alternative f => f a -> f [a]
< some px = px <:> many px
<
< many :: Alternative f => f a -> f [a]
< many px = some px <|> pure []

Giving the option to parse:

< optional :: Alternative f => f a -> f (Maybe a) < optional v = Just <$> v <|> pure Nothing


> chainl :: Alternative f => f a -> f (a -> a -> a) -> a -> f a
> chainl px pf x = chainl1 px pf <|> pure x

> chainl1 :: Alternative f => f a -> f (a -> a -> a) -> f a
> chainl1 px pf = foldl' (flip ($)) <$> px <*> (many (flip <$> pf <*> px))

> chainr :: Alternative f => f a -> f (a -> a -> a) -> a -> f a
> chainr px pf x = chainr1 px pf <|> pure x

> chainr1 :: Alternative f => f a -> f (a -> a -> a) -> f a
> chainr1 px pf = flip (foldr ($)) <$> (many (px <**> pf)) <*> px

> prefix :: Alternative f => f (a -> a) -> f a -> f a
> prefix op p = flip (foldr ($)) <$> many op <*> p

> postfix :: Alternative f => f a -> f (a -> a) -> f a
> postfix p op = foldl (flip ($)) <$> p <*> many op

> sepBy  :: Alternative f => f a -> f sep -> f [a]
> sepBy px psep = sepBy1 px psep <|> pure []
>
> sepBy1 :: Alternative f => f a -> f sep -> f [a]
> sepBy1 px psep = px <:> (many (psep *> px))

Monad

The monad instance allows the value in the result of one parser to influence the output of the parse.


> instance Monad Parser where
>   return :: a -> Parser a
>   return ofTheJedi = pure ofTheJedi   -- sorry, I couldn't help it.
>
>   (>>=) :: Parser a -> (a -> Parser b) -> Parser b
>   Parser px >>= f = Parser (\ts -> concat [ parse (f x) ts' | (x, ts') <- px ts ])


Satisfy
=======

The `satisfy` parser accepts characters that satisfy a given
predicate. It can be derived from the monadic interface as
follows:

Derived combinators:


< satisfy :: (Char -> Bool) -> Parser Char
< satisfy p = item >>= \t -> if p t then pure t else empty

More directly, we can avoid monadic combinators with this:


> satisfy :: (Char -> Bool) -> Parser Char
> satisfy p = Parser (\ts -> case ts of
>   []      -> []
>   (t:ts') -> [(t, ts') | p t])
>
> oneOf :: [Char] -> Parser Char
> oneOf = satisfy . flip elem
>
> noneOf :: [Char] -> Parser Char
> noneOf cs = satisfy (not . flip elem cs)

Using satisfy we can build a useful array of smaller parsers, such as one for recognising a particular character, or a particular string.


> char :: Char -> Parser Char
> char c = satisfy (c ==)

>
> string :: String -> Parser String
> string []     = return ""
> string (c:cs) = char c <:> string cs

Miscellaneous

It is convenient to have a way to remove results from a parse.


> cull :: Parser a -> Parser a
> cull (Parser px) = Parser (\ts -> take 1 (px ts))

There is a try after all, but it is only here to make this work with code written for other members of the Parsec family.


> try :: Parser a -> Parser a
> try = id

Pronunciation /prəˌnʌnsɪˈeɪʃ(ə)n/

Most of the symbols in this file are not easily pronounced, so let's establish some nomenclature.

Symbol   Name

<$>      fmap
<$       const fmap

<*>      tie fighter, or just "tie", ap
<*       tie left,
*>       tie right,
<**>     tie bomber, pa

>>=      bind

<|>      or

<:>      lift cons