# hspray

Simple multivariate polynomials in Haskell.

```
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
x = lone 1 :: Spray Double
y = lone 2 :: Spray Double
z = lone 3 :: Spray Double
poly = (2 *^ (x^**^3 ^*^ y ^*^ z) ^+^ x^**^2) ^*^ (4 *^ (x ^*^ y ^*^ z))
prettySpray show "X" poly
-- "(4.0) * X^(3, 1, 1) + (8.0) * X^(4, 2, 2)"
```

More generally, one can use the type `Spray a`

as long as the type `a`

has
the instances `Eq`

and `Algebra.Ring`

(defined in the **numeric-prelude**
library). For example `a = Rational`

:

```
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
import Data.Ratio
x = lone 1 :: Spray Rational
y = lone 2 :: Spray Rational
z = lone 3 :: Spray Rational
poly = ((2%3) *^ (x^**^3 ^*^ y ^*^ z) ^+^ x^**^2) ^*^ ((7%4) *^ (x ^*^ y ^*^ z))
prettySpray show "X" poly
-- "(7 % 4) * X^(3, 1, 1) + (7 % 6) * X^(4, 2, 2)"
```

Or `a = Spray Double`

:

```
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
p = lone 1 :: Spray Double
x = lone 1 :: Spray (Spray Double)
y = lone 2 :: Spray (Spray Double)
poly = ((p *^ x) ^+^ (p *^ y))^**^2
prettySpray (prettySpray show "a") "X" poly
-- "((1.0) * a^(2)) * X^(0, 2) + ((2.0) * a^(2)) * X^(1, 1) + ((1.0) * a^(2)) * X^(2)"
```

Evaluation:

```
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
x = lone 1 :: Spray Double
y = lone 2 :: Spray Double
z = lone 3 :: Spray Double
poly = 2 *^ (x ^*^ y ^*^ z)
-- evaluate poly at x=2, y=1, z=2
evalSpray poly [2, 1, 2]
-- 8.0
```

Differentiation:

```
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
x = lone 1 :: Spray Double
y = lone 2 :: Spray Double
z = lone 3 :: Spray Double
poly = 2 *^ (x ^*^ y ^*^ z) ^+^ (3 *^ x^**^2)
-- derivate with respect to x
prettySpray show "X" $ derivSpray 1 poly
-- "(2.0) * X^(0, 1, 1) + (6.0) * X^(1)"
```

## Easier usage

To construct a polynomial using the ordinary symbols `+`

, `*`

and `-`

,
one can hide these operators from **Prelude** and import them from
the **numeric-prelude** library:

```
import Prelude hiding ((*), (+), (-))
import qualified Prelude as P
import Algebra.Additive
import Algebra.Module
import Algebra.Ring
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
```

Or, maybe better (I didn't try yet), follow the "Usage" section on the
Hackage page
of **numeric-prelude**.

## Symbolic coefficients

Assume you have the polynomial `a * (x² + y²) + 2b/3 * z`

,
where `a`

and `b`

are symbolic coefficients.
You can define this polynomial as a `Spray`

as follows:

```
import Prelude hiding ((*), (+), (-))
import qualified Prelude as P
import Algebra.Additive
import Algebra.Module
import Algebra.Ring
import Math.Algebra.Hspray
import Data.Ratio
x = lone 1 :: Spray (Spray Rational)
y = lone 2 :: Spray (Spray Rational)
z = lone 3 :: Spray (Spray Rational)
a = lone 1 :: Spray Rational
b = lone 2 :: Spray Rational
poly = a *^ (x*x + y*y) + ((2%3) *^ b) *^ z
prettySpray (prettySpray show "a") "X" poly
-- "((2 % 3) * a^(0, 1)) * X^(0, 0, 1) + ((1 % 1) * a^(1)) * X^(0, 2) + ((1 % 1) * a^(1)) * X^(2)"
```

The `prettySpray`

function shows the expansion of the polynomial.
You can extract the powers and the coefficients as follows:

```
l = toList poly
map fst l
-- [[0,0,1],[2],[0,2]]
map toList $ map snd l
-- [[([0,1],2 % 3)],[([1],1 % 1)],[([1],1 % 1)]]
```