# pandoc: Conversion between markup formats

[ gpl, library, program, text ] [ Propose Tags ]

Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read markdown and (subsets of) reStructuredText, HTML, and LaTeX, and it can write markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, Docbook, OpenDocument, ODT, RTF, MediaWiki, groff man pages, and S5 HTML slide shows.

Pandoc extends standard markdown syntax with footnotes, embedded LaTeX, definition lists, tables, and other features. A compatibility mode is provided for those who need a drop-in replacement for Markdown.pl.

In contrast to existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, which use regex substitutions, pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer.

Versions [faq] 0.4, 0.41, 0.42, 0.43, 0.44, 0.45, 0.46, 1.0, 1.0.0.1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.2.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.5.0.1, 1.5.1, 1.5.1.1, 1.6, 1.6.0.1, 1.8, 1.8.0.1, 1.8.0.2, 1.8.0.3, 1.8.1, 1.8.1.1, 1.8.1.2, 1.8.2, 1.8.2.1, 1.9, 1.9.0.2, 1.9.0.3, 1.9.0.4, 1.9.0.5, 1.9.1, 1.9.1.1, 1.9.1.2, 1.9.2, 1.9.3, 1.9.4, 1.9.4.1, 1.9.4.2, 1.9.4.3, 1.9.4.4, 1.9.4.5, 1.10, 1.10.0.1, 1.10.0.2, 1.10.0.3, 1.10.0.4, 1.10.0.5, 1.10.1, 1.11, 1.11.1, 1.12, 1.12.0.1, 1.12.0.2, 1.12.1, 1.12.2, 1.12.2.1, 1.12.3, 1.12.3.1, 1.12.3.2, 1.12.3.3, 1.12.4, 1.12.4.2, 1.13, 1.13.0.1, 1.13.1, 1.13.2, 1.13.2.1, 1.14, 1.14.0.1, 1.14.0.2, 1.14.0.3, 1.14.0.4, 1.14.1, 1.15, 1.15.0.1, 1.15.0.2, 1.15.0.3, 1.15.0.4, 1.15.0.5, 1.15.0.6, 1.15.1, 1.15.1.1, 1.15.2, 1.15.2.1, 1.16, 1.16.0.1, 1.16.0.2, 1.17, 1.17.0.1, 1.17.0.2, 1.17.0.3, 1.17.1, 1.17.2, 1.18, 1.19, 1.19.1, 1.19.2, 1.19.2.1, 1.19.2.2, 1.19.2.3, 1.19.2.4, 2.0, 2.0.0.1, 2.0.1, 2.0.1.1, 2.0.2, 2.0.3, 2.0.4, 2.0.5, 2.0.6, 2.1, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.2.1, 2.2.3, 2.2.3.1, 2.2.3.2, 2.3, 2.3.1, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.7.1, 2.7.2, 2.7.3, 2.8, 2.8.0.1, 2.8.1, 2.9, 2.9.1, 2.9.1.1, 2.9.2, 2.9.2.1, 2.10, 2.10.1, 2.11, 2.11.0.1, 2.11.0.2, 2.11.0.3, 2.11.0.4, 2.11.1, 2.11.1.1, 2.11.2, 2.11.3, 2.11.3.1, 2.11.3.2 (info) changelog base (>=3 && <5), bytestring (>=0.9), citeproc-hs, containers (>=0.1), directory (>=1), filepath (>=1.1), highlighting-kate (>=0.2.3), mtl (>=1.1), network (>=2 && <2.6), old-time (>=1), parsec (>=2.1 && <3), pretty (>=1), process (>=1), syb, template-haskell (>=2.2), utf8-string (>=0.3 && <1), xhtml (>=3000.0), zip-archive (>=0.1.1) [details] LicenseRef-GPL (c) 2006-2008 John MacFarlane John MacFarlane John MacFarlane Revision 2 made by AdamBergmark at 2015-11-10T18:00:49Z Text http://johnmacfarlane.net/pandoc http://code.google.com/p/pandoc/issues/list by JohnMacFarlane at 2009-12-11T06:48:08Z Arch:2.11.3, Debian:2.2.1, Fedora:2.9.2.1, FreeBSD:1.15.0.6, LTSHaskell:2.5, NixOS:2.11.3.2, Stackage:2.7.3, openSUSE:2.10.1 markdown2pdf, hsmarkdown, pandoc 252203 total (1947 in the last 30 days) 2.75 (votes: 19) [estimated by Bayesian average] λ λ λ Docs uploaded by userBuild status unknown

## Flags

NameDescriptionDefaultType
highlighting

Compile in support for syntax highlighting of code blocks.

DisabledAutomatic
executable

Build the pandoc executable.

EnabledAutomatic
wrappers

Build the wrappers (hsmarkdown, markdown2pdf).

EnabledAutomatic
library

Build the pandoc library.

EnabledAutomatic
citeproc

Compile in support for citeproc-hs bibliographic formatting.

DisabledAutomatic

Use -f <flag> to enable a flag, or -f -<flag> to disable that flag. More info

Note: This package has metadata revisions in the cabal description newer than included in the tarball. To unpack the package including the revisions, use 'cabal get'.

#### Maintainer's Corner

For package maintainers and hackage trustees

[back to package description]
% Pandoc User's Guide
% John MacFarlane
% December 7, 2009

Pandoc is a [Haskell] library for converting from one markup format to
another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read
[markdown] and (subsets of) [reStructuredText], [HTML], and [LaTeX]; and
it can write [markdown], [reStructuredText], [HTML], [LaTeX], [ConTeXt],
[RTF], [DocBook XML], [OpenDocument XML], [ODT], [GNU Texinfo],
[MediaWiki markup], [groff man] pages, and [S5] HTML slide shows.
Pandoc's enhanced version of markdown includes syntax for footnotes,
tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, delimited code blocks,
superscript, subscript, strikeout, title blocks, automatic tables of
contents, embedded LaTeX math, and markdown inside HTML block elements.
(These enhancements can be disabled if a drop-in replacement for
Markdown.pl is desired.)

In contrast to most existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, which
use regex substitutions, Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a
set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native
representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert
this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input

[markdown]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/
[reStructuredText]: http://docutils.sourceforge.net/docs/ref/rst/introduction.html
[S5]: http://meyerweb.com/eric/tools/s5/
[HTML]:  http://www.w3.org/TR/html40/
[LaTeX]: http://www.latex-project.org/
[RTF]:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rich_Text_Format
[DocBook XML]:  http://www.docbook.org/
[OpenDocument XML]: http://opendocument.xml.org/
[ODT]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument
[MediaWiki markup]: http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Help:Formatting
[groff man]: http://developer.apple.com/DOCUMENTATION/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man7/groff_man.7.html
[GNU Texinfo]: http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/

© 2006-9 John MacFarlane (jgm at berkeley dot edu). Released under the
[GPL], version 2 or greater.  This software carries no warranty of
Contributors:  Recai Oktaş (build system, debian package, wrapper
scripts), Peter Wang (Texinfo writer), Andrea Rossato (OpenDocument writer).

[GPL]: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html "GNU General Public License"

Using Pandoc
============

If you run pandoc without arguments, it will accept input from
stdin.  If you run it with file names as arguments, it will take input
from those files.  By default, pandoc writes its output to stdout.[^1]
If you want to write to a file, use the -o option:

pandoc -o hello.html hello.txt

[^1]:  The exception is for odt.  Since this is a binary output format,
an output file must be specified explicitly.

Note that you can specify multiple input files on the command line.
pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them)
before parsing:

pandoc -s ch1.txt ch2.txt refs.txt > book.html

(The -s option here tells pandoc to produce a standalone HTML file,
with a proper header, rather than a fragment.  For more details on this
and many other command-line options, see below.)

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using
command-line options.  The input format can be specified using the
-r/--read or -f/--from options, the output format using the
-w/--write or -t/--to options.  Thus, to convert hello.txt from
markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from html to markdown:

pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported output formats include markdown, latex, context
(ConTeXt), html, rtf (rich text format), rst
(reStructuredText), docbook (DocBook XML), opendocument
(OpenDocument XML), odt (OpenOffice text document), texinfo, (GNU
Texinfo), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), man (groff man), and s5
(which produces an HTML file that acts like powerpoint).

Supported input formats include markdown, html, latex, and rst.
Note that the rst reader only parses a subset of reStructuredText
syntax. For example, it doesn't handle tables, option lists, or
footnotes. But for simple documents it should be adequate. The latex
and html readers are also limited in what they can do. Because the
html reader is picky about the HTML it parses, it is recommended that
you pipe HTML through [HTML Tidy] before sending it to pandoc, or use
the html2markdown script described below.

If you don't specify a reader or writer explicitly, pandoc will
try to determine the input and output format from the extensions of
the input and output filenames.  Thus, for example,

pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX.  If no output file
is specified (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file's
extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML.
If no input file is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or
if the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format will
be assumed to be markdown unless explicitly specified.

Character encodings
-------------------

All input is assumed to be in the UTF-8 encoding, and all output
is in UTF-8. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8 and you use
accented or foreign characters, you should pipe the input and output
through [iconv]. For example,

iconv -t utf-8 source.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8 > output.html

will convert source.txt from the local encoding to UTF-8, then
convert it to HTML, then convert back to the local encoding,
putting the output in output.html.

The shell scripts (described below) automatically convert the input
from the local encoding to UTF-8 before running them through pandoc,
then convert the output back to the local encoding.

Shell scripts
=============

Three shell scripts, markdown2pdf, html2markdown, and hsmarkdown,
are included in the standard Pandoc installation. (They are not included
in the Windows binary package, as they require a POSIX shell, but they
may be used in Windows under Cygwin.)

1.  markdown2pdf produces a PDF file from markdown-formatted
text, using pandoc and pdflatex.  The default
behavior of markdown2pdf is to create a file with the same
base name as the first argument and the extension pdf; thus,
for example,

markdown2pdf sample.txt endnotes.txt

will produce sample.pdf.  (If sample.pdf exists already,
it will be backed up before being overwritten.)  An output file
name can be specified explicitly using the -o option:

markdown2pdf -o book.pdf chap1 chap2

If no input file is specified, input will be taken from stdin.
All of pandoc's options will work with markdown2pdf as well.

markdown2pdf assumes that pdflatex is in the path.  It also
assumes that the following LaTeX packages are available:
unicode, fancyhdr (if you have verbatim text in footnotes),
graphicx (if you use images), array (if you use tables),
and ulem (if you use strikeout text).  If they are not already
included in your LaTeX distribution, you can get them from
[CTAN]. A full [TeX Live] or [MacTeX] distribution will have all of
these packages.

2.  html2markdown grabs a web page from a file or URL and converts
it to markdown-formatted text, using tidy and pandoc.

All of pandoc's options will work with html2markdown as well.
In addition, the following special options may be used.
The special options must be separated from the html2markdown
command and any regular Pandoc options by the delimiter --:

html2markdown -o out.txt -- -e latin1 -g curl google.com

The -e or --encoding option specifies the character encoding
of the HTML input.  If this option is not specified, and input
is not from stdin, html2markdown will attempt to determine the
page's character encoding from the "Content-type" meta tag.
If this is not present, UTF-8 is assumed.

The -g or --grabber option specifies the command to be used to
fetch the contents of a URL:

html2markdown -g 'curl --user foo:bar' www.mysite.com

If this option is not specified, html2markdown searches for an
available program (wget, curl, or a text-mode browser) to fetch
the contents of a URL.

html2markdown requires [HTML Tidy], which must be in the path.
It uses [iconv] for character encoding conversions; if iconv
is absent, it will still work, but it will treat everything as UTF-8.

3.  hsmarkdown is designed to be used as a drop-in replacement for
Markdown.pl.  It forces pandoc to convert from markdown to
HTML, and to use the --strict flag for maximal compliance with
official markdown syntax.  (All of Pandoc's syntax extensions and
variants, described below, are disabled.)  No other command-line
options are allowed.  (In fact, options will be interpreted as
filenames.)

As an alternative to using the hsmarkdown shell script, the
user may create a symbolic link to pandoc called hsmarkdown.
When invoked under the name hsmarkdown, pandoc will behave
as if the --strict flag had been selected, and no command-line
options will be recognized.  However, this approach does not work
under Cygwin, due to problems with its simulation of symbolic

[Cygwin]:  http://www.cygwin.com/
[HTML Tidy]:  http://tidy.sourceforge.net/
[iconv]: http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/
[CTAN]: http://www.ctan.org "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network"
[TeX Live]: http://www.tug.org/texlive/
[MacTeX]:   http://www.tug.org/mactex/

Command-line options
====================

Various command-line options can be used to customize the output.
For further documentation, see the pandoc(1) man page.

-f, --from, -r, or --read *format*
:   specifies the input format (the format Pandoc will be converting
*from*). *format* can be native, markdown, rst, html, or
latex.  (+lhs can be appended to indicate that the input should
be treated as literate Haskell source.  See

-t, --to, -w, or --write *format*
:   specifies the output format -- the format Pandoc will
be converting *to*. *format* can be native, html, s5,
docbook, opendocument, latex, context, markdown, man,
rst, and rtf. (+lhs can be appended to indicate that the
output should be treated as literate Haskell source. See

-s or --standalone
:   indicates that a standalone document is to be produced (with
appropriate headers and footers), rather than a fragment.

-o or --output *filename*
:   sends output to *filename*. If this option is not specified,
or if its argument is -, output will be sent to stdout.
(Exception: if the output format is odt, output to stdout
is disabled.)

-p or --preserve-tabs
:   causes tabs in the source text to be preserved, rather than converted
to spaces (the default).

--tab-stop *tabstop*
:   sets the number of spaces per tab to *tabstop* (defaults to 4).

--strict
:   specifies that strict markdown syntax is to be used, without
pandoc's usual extensions and variants (described below).  When the
input format is HTML, this means that constructs that have no
equivalents in standard markdown (e.g. definition lists or strikeout
text) will be parsed as raw HTML.

--reference-links
:   causes reference-style links to be used in markdown
and reStructuredText output.  By default inline links are used.

-R or --parse-raw
:   causes the HTML and LaTeX readers to parse HTML codes and LaTeX
environments that it can't translate as raw HTML or LaTeX. Raw HTML can
be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, and S5 output; raw LaTeX
can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output.
The default is for the readers to omit untranslatable HTML codes and
LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader does pass through untranslatable
LaTeX *commands*, even if -R is not specified.)

-C or --custom-header *filename*
:   can be used to specify a custom document header. To see the headers
used by default, use the -D option: for example, pandoc -D html
prints the default HTML header.  Implies --standalone.

--toc or --table-of-contents
case of latex, context, and rst, an instruction to create
one) in the output document. This option has no effect with man,
docbook, or s5 output formats.

-c or --css *filename*
:   allows the user to specify a custom stylesheet that will be linked to
in HTML and S5 output.  This option can be used repeatedly to include
multiple stylesheets. They will be included in the order specified.
Implies --standalone.

-H or --include-in-header *filename*
:   includes the contents of *filename* (verbatim) at the end of the
document header. This can be used, for example, to include special
CSS or javascript in HTML documents.  This option can be used
repeatedly to include multiple files in the header.  They will be
included in the order specified.  Implies --standalone.

-B or --include-before-body *filename*
:   includes the contents of *filename* (verbatim) at the beginning of
the document body (e.g. after the <body> tag in HTML, or the
\begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include
navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be
used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in
the order specified.

-A or --include-after-body *filename*
:   includes the contents of *filename* (verbatim) at the end of
the document body (before the </body> tag in HTML, or the
\end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be be used
repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the
order specified.

-T or --title-prefix *string*
:   includes *string* as a prefix at the beginning of the title that
appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at
the beginning of the HTML body). (See below on
[Title Blocks](#title-blocks).)  Implies --standalone.

-S or --smart
:   causes pandoc to produce typographically correct output, along the
lines of John Gruber's [Smartypants]. Straight quotes are converted
to curly quotes, --- to dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking
spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr."
(Note: This option is only significant when the input format is
markdown. It is selected automatically when the output format is
latex or context.)

-m*[url]* or --latexmathml*[=url]*
:   causes pandoc to use the [LaTeXMathML] script to display
TeX math in HTML or S5. If a local copy of LaTeXMathML.js is
available on the webserver where the page will be viewed, provide a
*url* and a link will be inserted in the generated HTML or S5. If
no *url* is provided, the contents of the script will be inserted
directly; this provides portability at the price of efficiency. If
you plan to use math on several pages, it is much better to link to
a copy of LaTeXMathML.js, which can be cached.  (See --jsmath,
--gladtex, and --mimetex for alternative ways of dealing with
math in HTML.)

--jsmath*=[url]*
:   causes pandoc to use the [jsMath] script to display
TeX math in HTML or S5. The *url* should point to the jsMath load
script (e.g. jsMath/easy/load.js). If it is provided, a link to it
will be included in the header of standalone HTML documents.
(See --latexmathml, --mimetex, and --gladtex for alternative
ways of dealing with math in HTML.)

--gladtex*[=url]*
:   causes TeX formulas to be enclosed in <eq> tags in HTML or S5 output.
This output can then be processed by [gladTeX] to produce links to
images with the typeset formulas.  (See --latexmathml, --jsmath, and
--mimetex for alternative ways of dealing with math in HTML.)

--mimetex*[=url]*
:   causes TeX formulas to be replaced by <img> tags linking to the
[mimeTeX] CGI script, which will produce images with the typeset
formulas.  (See --latexmathml, --jsmath, and --gladtex for alternative
ways of dealing with math in HTML.)

-i or --incremental
:   causes all lists in S5 output to be displayed incrementally by
default (one item at a time). The normal default is for lists to be
displayed all at once.

-N or --number-sections
:   causes sections to be numbered in LaTeX, ConTeXt, or HTML output.
By default, sections are not numbered.

--no-wrap
:   disables text-wrapping in output.  By default, text is wrapped
appropriately for the output format.

--sanitize-html
:   sanitizes HTML (in markdown or HTML input) using a whitelist.
Unsafe tags are replaced by HTML comments; unsafe attributes
are omitted. URIs in links and images are also checked against a
whitelist of URI schemes.

--email-obfuscation*=none|javascript|references*
:   specifies a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents.
*none* leaves mailto: links as they are.  *javascript* obfuscates
them using javascript. *references* obfuscates them by printing their
letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references.  If --strict
is specified, *references* is used regardless of the presence
of this option.

--id-prefix*=string*
:   specifies a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers
in HTML output.  This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers
when generating fragments to be included in other pages.

--indented-code-classes*=classes*
:   specifies classes to use for indented code blocks--for example,
perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated
by spaces or commas.

--dump-args
:   is intended to make it easier to create wrapper scripts that use
Pandoc. It causes Pandoc to dump information about the arguments
with which it was called to stdout, then exit. The first line
printed is the name of the output file specified using the -o
or --output option, or - if output would go to stdout. The
remaining lines, if any, list command-line arguments. These will
include the names of input files and any special options passed
after  --  on the command line. So, for example,

:       pandoc --dump-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt \
appendix.txt -- -e latin1

:   will cause the following to be printed to stdout:

:       foo.html foo.txt appendix.txt -e latin1

--ignore-args
:   causes Pandoc to ignore all command-line arguments.
Regular Pandoc options are not ignored.  Thus, for example,

:       pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1

:   is equivalent to

:       pandoc -o foo.html -s

-v or --version
:   prints the version number to STDERR.

-h or --help
:   prints a usage message to STDERR.

[Smartypants]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/smartypants/
[LaTeXMathML]: http://math.etsu.edu/LaTeXMathML/
[jsMath]:  http://www.math.union.edu/~dpvc/jsmath/
[mimeTeX]: http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html

Pandoc's markdown vs. standard markdown
=======================================

In parsing markdown, Pandoc departs from and extends [standard markdown]
in a few respects.  (To run Pandoc on the official markdown test suite,
type make test-markdown.)  Except where noted, these differences can
be suppressed by specifying the --strict command-line option or by
using the hsmarkdown wrapper.

[standard markdown]:  http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax
"Markdown syntax description"

Backslash escapes
-----------------

Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space
character preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if it
would normally indicate formatting.  Thus, for example, if one writes

*\*hello\**

one will get

<em>*hello*</em>

<strong>hello</strong>

This rule is easier to remember than standard markdown's rule,
which allows only the following characters to be backslash-escaped:

\*_{}[]()>#+-.!

A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space.  It will
appear in TeX output as '~' and in HTML and XML as '\&#160;' or
'\&nbsp;'.

A backslash-escaped newline (i.e. a backslash occurring at the end of
a line) is parsed as a hard line break.  It will appear in TeX output as
'\\' and in HTML as '<br />'.  This is a nice alternative to
markdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks using
two trailing spaces on a line.

Subscripts and superscripts
---------------------------

Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by ^
characters; subscripts may be written by surrounding the subscripted
text by ~ characters.  Thus, for example,

H~2~O is a liquid.  2^10^ is 1024.

If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spaces
must be escaped with backslashes.  (This is to prevent accidental
superscripting and subscripting through the ordinary use of ~ and ^.)
Thus, if you want the letter P with 'a cat' in subscripts, use
P~a\ cat~, not P~a cat~.

Strikeout
---------

To strikeout a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it
with ~~. Thus, for example,

This ~~is deleted text.~~

Nested Lists
------------

Pandoc behaves differently from standard markdown on some "edge
cases" involving lists.  Consider this source:

1.  First
2.  Second:
-   Fee
-   Fie
-   Foe

3.  Third

Pandoc transforms this into a "compact list" (with no <p> tags around
"First", "Second", or "Third"), while markdown puts <p> tags around
"Second" and "Third" (but not "First"), because of the blank space
around "Third". Pandoc follows a simple rule: if the text is followed by
a blank line, it is treated as a paragraph. Since "Second" is followed
by a list, and not a blank line, it isn't treated as a paragraph. The
fact that the list is followed by a blank line is irrelevant. (Note:
Pandoc works this way even when the --strict option is specified. This
behavior is consistent with the official markdown syntax description,
even though it is different from that of Markdown.pl.)

Ordered Lists
-------------

Unlike standard markdown, Pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked
with uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to
arabic numerals. (This behavior can be turned off using the --strict
option.) List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or followed by a
single right-parentheses or period. They must be separated from the
text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is a
capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces.[^2]

[^2]:  The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs
starting with people's initials, like

B. Russell was an English philosopher.

do not get treated as list items.

This rule will not prevent

(C) 2007 Joe Smith

from being interpreted as a list item.  In this case, a backslash
escape can be used:

(C\) 2007 Joe Smith

Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to the
starting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in the
output format. Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followed
by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercase
roman numerals:

9)  Ninth
10)  Tenth
11)  Eleventh
i. subone
ii. subtwo
iii. subthree

Note that Pandoc pays attention only to the *starting* marker in a list.
So, the following yields a list numbered sequentially starting from 2:

(2) Two
(5) Three
1.  Four
*   Five

If default list markers are desired, use '#.':

#.  one
#.  two
#.  three

Definition lists
----------------

Pandoc supports definition lists, using a syntax inspired by
[PHP Markdown Extra] and [reStructuredText]:

[PHP Markdown Extra]: http://www.michelf.com/projects/php-markdown/extra/

Term 1
:   Definition 1

Term 2
:   Definition 2

:   Second paragraph of definition 2.

Each term must fit on one line. The definition must begin on the line
after the term. The definition consists of one or more block elements
(paragraph, code block, list, etc.), each beginning with a colon and
(aside from the colon) indented one tab stop.

Term *with inline markup*
:   Here is the definition.  It may contain multiple blocks.
Here is some code:

:       {* my code *}

:   Here is the third paragraph of this definition.

If you leave space after the definition (as in the first example above),
the definitions will be considered paragraphs. In some output formats,
this will mean greater spacing between term/definition pairs. For a
compact definition list, do not leave space between the definition and
the next term:

Term 1
:   Definition 1
Term 2
:   Definition 2

---------------

Pandoc allows implicit reference links with just a single set of
brackets.  So, the following links are equivalent:

(Note:  Pandoc works this way even if --strict is specified, because
Markdown.pl 1.0.2b7 allows single-bracket links.)

Footnotes
---------

Pandoc's markdown allows footnotes, using the following syntax:

Here is a footnote reference,[^1] and another.[^longnote]

[^1]: Here is the footnote.

[^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks.

Subsequent paragraphs are indented to show that they
belong to the previous footnote.

{ some.code }

The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first
line.  In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes work like
multi-paragraph list items.

This paragraph won't be part of the note, because it isn't indented.

The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs,
or newlines.  These identifiers are used only to correlate the
footnote reference with the note itself; in the output, footnotes
will be numbered sequentially.

The footnotes themselves need not be placed at the end of the
document.  They may appear anywhere except inside other block elements
(lists, block quotes, tables, etc.).

Inline footnotes are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes,
they cannot contain multiple paragraphs).  The syntax is as follows:

Here is an inline note.^[Inlines notes are easier to write, since
you don't have to pick an identifier and move down to type the
note.]

Inline and regular footnotes may be mixed freely.

Tables
------

Two kinds of tables may be used.  Both kinds presuppose the use of
a fixed-width font, such as Courier.

Simple tables look like this:

Right     Left     Center     Default
-------     ------ ----------   -------
12     12        12            12
123     123       123          123
1     1          1             1

Table:  Demonstration of simple table syntax.

The headers and table rows must each fit on one line.  Column
alignments are determined by the position of the header text relative
to the dashed line below it:[^3]

- If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side
but extends beyond it on the left, the column is right-aligned.
- If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side
but extends beyond it on the right, the column is left-aligned.
- If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides,
the column is centered.
- If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides,
the default alignment is used (in most cases, this will be left).

[^3]:  This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the
[Markdown discussion list](http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/markdown-discuss/2005-March/001097.html).

The table must end with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed by
a blank line. A caption may optionally be provided (as illustrated in
the example above). A caption is a paragraph beginning with the string
Table:, which will be stripped off.

The column headers may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used
to end the table. For example:

-------     ------ ----------   -------
12     12        12             12
123     123       123           123
1     1          1              1
-------     ------ ----------   -------

When headers are omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis
of the first line of the table body. So, in the tables above, the columns
would be right, left, center, and right aligned, respectively.

Multiline tables allow headers and table rows to span multiple lines
of text.  Here is an example:

-------------------------------------------------------------
Centered   Default           Right Left
----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------
First    row                12.0 Example of a row that
spans multiple lines.

Second    row                 5.0 Here's another one. Note
the blank line between
rows.
-------------------------------------------------------------

Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span
multiple lines.

These work like simple tables, but with the following differences:

- They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text
- They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line.
- The rows must be separated by blank lines.

In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of
the columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths in
the output. So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in the
output, try widening it in the markdown source.

Headers may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables:

----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------
First    row                12.0 Example of a row that
spans multiple lines.

Second    row                 5.0 Here's another one. Note
the blank line between
rows.
-------------------------------------------------------------

Table: Here's a multiline table without headers.

It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row
should be followed by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that ends
the table), or the table may be interpreted as a simple table.

Delimited Code blocks
---------------------

In addition to standard indented code blocks, Pandoc supports
*delimited* code blocks.  These begin with a row of three or more
tildes (~) and end with a row of tildes that must be at least
as long as the starting row.  Everything between the tilde-lines
is treated as code.  No indentation is necessary:

~~~~~~~
{code here}
~~~~~~~

Like regular code blocks, delimited code blocks must be separated
from surrounding text by blank lines.

If the code itself contains a row of tildes, just use a longer
row of tildes at the start and end:

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~
code including tildes
~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Optionally, you may specify the language of the code block using
this syntax:

qsort []     = []
qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++
qsort (filter (>= x) xs)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Some output formats can use this information to do syntax highlighting.
Currently, the only output format that uses this information is HTML.

If pandoc has been compiled with syntax highlighting support, then the
code block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines.  (To see
which languages are supported, do pandoc --version.)

If pandoc has not been compiled with syntax highlighting support, the
code block above will appear as follows:

<code>
...
</code>
</pre>

Title blocks
------------

If the file begins with a title block

% title
% author(s) (separated by commas)
% date

it will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text.  (It
will be used, for example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML
output.)  The block may contain just a title, a title and an author,
or all three lines.  Each must begin with a % and fit on one line.
The title may contain standard inline formatting.  If you want to
include an author but no title, or a title and a date but no author,
you need a blank line:

% My title
%
% June 15, 2006

Titles will be written only when the --standalone (-s) option is
chosen.  In HTML output, titles will appear twice: once in the
document head -- this is the title that will appear at the top of the
window in a browser -- and once at the beginning of the document body.
The title in the document head can have an optional prefix attached
(--title-prefix or -T option).  The title in the body appears as
an H1 element with class "title", so it can be suppressed or
reformatted with CSS. If a title prefix is specified with -T and no
title block appears in the document, the title prefix will be used by
itself as the HTML title.

The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and
other header and footer information from the title line. The title
is assumed to be the first word on the title line, which may optionally
end with a (single-digit) section number in parentheses. (There should
be no space between the title and the parentheses.)  Anything after
this is assumed to be additional footer and header text. A single pipe
character (|) should be used to separate the footer text from the header
text.  Thus,

% PANDOC(1)

will yield a man page with the title PANDOC and section 1.

% PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals

will also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer.

% PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals | Version 4.0

will also have "Version 4.0" in the header.

Markdown in HTML blocks
-----------------------

While standard markdown leaves HTML blocks exactly as they are, Pandoc
treats text between HTML tags as markdown. Thus, for example, Pandoc
will turn

<table>
<tr>
<td>*one*</td>
</tr>
</table>

into

<table>
<tr>
<td><em>one</em></td>
</tr>
</table>

whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is.

There is one exception to this rule:  text between <script> and
</script> tags is not interpreted as markdown.

This departure from standard markdown should make it easier to mix
markdown with HTML block elements.  For example, one can surround
a block of markdown text with <div> tags without preventing it
from being interpreted as markdown.

--------------------------

Each header element in pandoc's HTML output is given a unique
identifier. This identifier is based on the text of the header. To
derive the identifier from the header text,

- Remove all formatting, links, etc.
- Remove all punctuation, except underscores, hyphens, periods,
and tildes.
- Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens.
- Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase.
- Remove everything up to the first letter (identifiers may
not begin with a number or punctuation mark).
- If nothing is left after this, use the identifier section.

Thus, for example,

-------------------------------------   ---------------------------
Header identifiers in HTML              header-identifiers-in-html
*Dogs*?--in *my* house?                 dogs--in-my-house
[HTML], [S5], or [RTF]?                 html-s5-or-rtf
3. Applications                         applications
33                                      section

These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifier
from the header text. The exception is when several headers have the
same text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as described
above; the second will get the same identifier with -1 appended; the
third with -2; and so on.

These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of
contents generated by the --toc|--table-of-contents option. They
also make it easy to provide links from one section of a document to
another. A link to this section, for example, might look like this:

Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works
only in HTML.

Blank lines before headers and blockquotes
------------------------------------------

Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a header
or blockquote.  Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the
beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that
it is all too easy for a > or # to end up at the beginning of a
line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping).  Consider, for
example:

I like several of their flavors of ice cream:  #22, for example, and
#5.

Math
----

Anything between two $characters will be treated as TeX math. The opening$ must have a character immediately to its right, while the
closing $must have a character immediately to its left. Thus, $20,000 and $30,000 won't parse as math. If for some reason you need to enclose text in literal$ characters, backslash-escape
them and they won't be treated as math delimiters.

TeX math will be printed in all output formats. In Markdown,
reStructuredText, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output, it will appear verbatim
between $characters. In reStructuredText output, it will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:, as described [here](http://www.american.edu/econ/itex2mml/mathhack.rst). In Texinfo output, it will be rendered inside a @math command. In groff man output, it will be rendered verbatim without$'s.

In MediaWiki output, it will be rendered inside [itex] tags.

In RTF, Docbook, and OpenDocument output, it will be rendered, as far as
possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim.
Unknown commands and symbols, and commands that cannot be dealt with
this way (like \frac), will be rendered verbatim. So the results may
be a mix of raw TeX code and properly rendered unicode math.

In HTML and S5 output, the way math is rendered will depend on the
command-line options selected:

1.  The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using unicode
characters, as with RTF, Docbook, and OpenDocument output. Formulas
are put inside a span with class="math", so that they may be
styled differently from the surrounding text if needed.

2.  If the --latexmathml option is used, TeX math will be displayed
between $or$$characters and put in <span> tags with class LaTeX. The [LaTeXMathML] script will be used to render it as formulas. (This trick does not work in all browsers, but it works in Firefox. In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX math will appear verbatim between$ characters.)

3.  If the --jsmath option is used, TeX math will be put inside
<span> tags (for inline math) or <div> tags (for display math)
with class math.  The [jsMath] script will be used to render
it.

4.  If the --mimetex option is used, the [mimeTeX] CGI script will
be called to generate images for each TeX formula. This should
work in all browsers. The --mimetex option takes an optional URL
as argument. If no URL is specified, it will be assumed that the
mimeTeX CGI script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.

5.  If the --gladtex option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed
in <eq> tags in the HTML output.  The resulting htex file may then
be processed by [gladTeX], which will produce image files for each
formula and an html file with links to these images.  So, the
procedure is:

pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex
gladtex -d myfile-images myfile.htex  # produces myfile.html
# and images in myfile-images

Inline TeX
----------

Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged to the
LaTeX and ConTeXt writers. Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to
include BibTeX citations:

This result was proved in \cite{jones.1967}.

Note that in LaTeX environments, like

\begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline
Age & Frequency \\ \hline
18--25  & 15 \\
26--35  & 33 \\
36--45  & 22 \\ \hline
\end{tabular}

the material between the begin and end tags will be interpreted as raw
LaTeX, not as markdown.

Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than Markdown, LaTeX,
and ConTeXt.

==============

When run with the "standalone" option (-s), pandoc creates a
standalone file, complete with an appropriate header.  To see the
default headers used for html and latex, use the following commands:

pandoc -D html

pandoc -D latex

If you want to use a different header, just create a file containing
it and specify it on the command line as follows:

Producing S5 with Pandoc
========================

Producing an [S5] web-based slide show with Pandoc is easy.  A title
page is constructed automatically from the document's title block (see
above).  Each section (with a level-one header) produces a single slide.
(Note that if the section is too big, the slide will not fit on the page;
S5 is not smart enough to produce multiple pages.)

Here's the markdown source for a simple slide show, eating.txt:

% Eating Habits
% John Doe
% March 22, 2005

# In the morning

- Eat eggs
- Drink coffee

# In the evening

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

To produce the slide show, simply type

pandoc -w s5 -s eating.txt > eating.html

and open up eating.html in a browser.

Note that by default, the S5 writer produces lists that display
"all at once."  If you want your lists to display incrementally
(one item at a time), use the -i option.  If you want a
particular list to depart from the default (that is, to display
incrementally without the -i option and all at once with the
-i option), put it in a block quote:

> - Eat spaghetti
> - Drink wine

In this way incremental and nonincremental lists can be mixed in
a single document.

Note: the S5 file produced by pandoc with the -s/--standalone option
embeds the javascript and CSS required to show the slides. Thus it
does not depend on any additional files: you can send the HTML file to
others, and they will be able to view the slide show just by opening
it. However, if you intend to produce several S5 slide shows, and you
are displaying them on your own website, it is better to keep the S5
javascript and CSS files separate from the slide shows themselves, so
that they may be cached. The best approach in this case is to use pandoc
without the -s option to produce the body of the S5 document, which
can then be inserted into an HTML template that links to the javascript
and CSS files required by S5. (See the instructions on the S5 website.)
Alternatively, you may use -s together with the -C/--custom-header
option.

========================

If you append +lhs to an appropriate input or output format (markdown,
rst, or latex for input or output; html for output only), pandoc
will treat the document as literate Haskell source. This means that

- In markdown input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell
code rather than block quotations.  Text between \begin{code}
and \end{code} will also be treated as Haskell code.

- In markdown output, code blocks with class haskell will be
rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be
indented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code.
rather than atx-style (with '#' characters). (This is because ghc
treats '#' characters in column 1 as introducing line numbers.)

- In restructured text input, "bird track" sections will be parsed

- In restructured text output, code blocks with class haskell will
be rendered using bird tracks.

- In LaTeX input, text in code environments will be parsed as

- In LaTeX output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered
inside code environments.

- In HTML output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered
with class literatehaskell and bird tracks.

Examples:

pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html

`